Immanuel Kant’s The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals is his first crucial attempt to provide moral philosophy, and his work has endures a standout among the most powerful philosophers. Kant’s analysis can be perceived as a foundation for imminent studies by clarifying the major ideas and rules of moral rationale and demonstrating that they are subordinated to rational factors. He seeks to prove that the discovery of the principle of morality is achievable. What is more, he grants a revolutionary assertion the rightness of a choice is controlled by the nature of the principle an individual decides to follow. Therefore, Kant’s moral sense theories often are depicted as strikingly unconventional.
IGNATIO LANGTON Introduction The philosophy of human rights was coined by the philosophies of Emmanuel Kant, John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Stuart Mill. These authors advocated for human rights in their philosophies. They brought in the aspect of political freedom, inequality and liberty within a society and also they dealt with the reality of moral theories by putting them into practice. It is apparent that the philosophers had an understanding of what human rights are. Rousseau highlighted in his writings that in natural state humans have uncorrupted morals.
He was greatly influenced by Aristotle, David Hume, and Plato. His main interests were epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. Kant made the basis for an ethical law from the concept of duty. Kant believed that people should obey the law no matter what their morals are. When we pay taxes, we can use the categorical imperative theory.
He views the law as an activity and the legal system as the product of a sustained purposive effort . To Fuller, the law’s purpose is to “achiev[e] [social] order through subjecting people’s conduct to the guidance of general rules by which they may themselves orient their behavior ”. The revival and evolution of modern natural law concept came about as a form of criticism against H.L.A. Hart, notably by Fuller, Devlin and Dworkin in their rebuttal to Hart’s published lecture . Hart identifying a positivist view espoused the conceptual separation of law and morality and a legal system can function as effectively even if it is neither just
Hon’ble Judge of the Supreme Court of India Gajendra Gadker J1., while delivering a judgment pointed out that “the concept of social justice is an essential postulate of the rule of law and it gives special significance to the idea of a welfare state”. The Constitution enshrines the concept of Social Justice as one of the objects of state policy and the principles
The beginning of knowledge comes from metaphysics, theological and positivism. And these put much on a critical stance in the discourse of method. Little (2011), explains that method is a prescriptive body of doctrines to guide inquiry. The ideal of understanding social world underlies in whether to embrace and use principles and guiding procedures of the natural world where positivism dominates in the epistemological consideration. Atkinson & Hammersley (2007) explain that this method has a considerable influence onto social scientist, in promoting the status of survey research and the quantitative analysis Positivism refers to an epistemological position which calls for the application of the methods of natural sciences to the study of
Individualism is “a political and social philosophy that places high value on the freedom of the individual”(Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2003，295).In a board sense, it can be an act, a belief and a doctrine that focuses on individuals in fields like politics, economics and culture. The notion of individualism occurred early in the ancient Greek civilization, but a complete theory was not coined until the modern times. Through years of development, it becomes a typical Western value that has been thought to distinguish Western society from other societies. Among the West, America has been regarded as a defining example that stresses individualism as its core value (Deng 2005). As a general philosophy, individualism involves “a value system, a theory of human nature, a general attitude or temper and belief in certain political, economic, social, and religious arrangements” (Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2003,295).
In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle synthesizes an enthralling dissertation that, “the human good proves to be activity of soul in accord with excellence” (1098a 16-17) which requires, “a rational principle” (1098a 7-8). Even though some critics may contend that the human good lies within something other than excellently acting in accordance with reason, the case set forth in Nicomachean Ethics attempts to dismiss such detractors as inordinately obstinate in their parochial ideology. To support his conclusion, Aristotle adroitly employs several cogent premises. This paper will explain how Aristotle reaches his conclusion and examine potential flaws in his argument First, I will state each proposition in Aristotle’s argument. After I present an individual
Alighting from ancient times, the concept of human rights has covered a hard and stiff way. Aristotle was the first one in asserting the idea of natural law, in his work “Politics” saying, “A person becomes slave or free only by law, human beings do not differ by the nature of mankind.” In other words, the problem of human rights together with the problem of peace and security, continues to be one of the dominant maters of political life and public debate. The situation is presented differently in every country and keeps progressing, depending on the national historical circumstances and the direction of development in every country. Definitely and unquestionably, the problem of fundamental human rights and liberties is still a constant preoccupation of the great philosophers in the following centuries, until it was fruitful on December 10th 1948, a date worldwide celebrated as the International Day of Human Rights, it was then adopted the Universal Declaration of Human
INTRODUCTION OF HOLLAND What is Jurisprudence? Jurisprudence, both as a philosophy or social science of law, is primarily concerned with regulation and control of human conduct to realize and provide the cherished long term and short term needs, expectations and goals of a society in the context of its prevailing social and political ordering. It is for this reason Wurzel rightly remarked that ‘Jurisprudence was the first Social Sciences to be born’. For no society can exist without its law or jurisprudence. Since Social values and goals change according to changing times and needs the definition and nature of jurisprudence also changes to sub-serve the need and social ends in terms of their content and ideal.