Diversity Literature Review

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Review of Literature
Diversity and inclusion is one of the most prominent issues in our country today. As the narrative around diversity and inclusion continues to be widely discussed, it has also become an important issue in education, specifically higher education institutions. The student profile has changed significantly over the past few decades with more women and minorities attending college and pursuing higher education. The changes in student demographics must be considered as part of the discussion around diversity and inclusion as it relates to diversity in education. It is important that all students feel a sense of belonging on campus, but especially minority students.
It is also important to consider diversity, inclusion and
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It is important that the core values reflect the behavior and culture of an institution, and with such a large focus on diversity and inclusion, the efforts can be greater. Learning more about the importance of diversity and inclusion, and what past efforts have been made, can aid in more successful efforts by higher education leaders in the future. Golden and Matlock (2007), assert that diversity and inclusion efforts must be a priority to higher education leaders including the President, Chancellor, Executive Officers and Governing Board, and that these leaders must advocate for clear and consistent communication around diversity, with the entire campus community, especially students.
This literature review will discuss the importance of diversity and inclusion, faculty and staff diversity, unconscious bias, and hiring practices. This study will further advance existing research by providing a structure for future hiring practices that can help to improve diversity and inclusion on college and university campuses, as it relates to staff and faculty diversity.
Review of Literature
The Importance of Diversity and Inclusion
The diversity climate on college campuses is shown to have a significant impact on the student experience and student success. According to Jackson, May & Whitney (1995) diversity can be defined as the existence of differences among members of a social unit.
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According to Chen (2013), the ratio of minority faculty and leaders remains disproportionately low in comparison to white faculty. This is in spite of research which shows the benefits of faculty and staff diversity. Previous research indicates that increasing the number of faculty members of color may contribute to the “critical mass” needed to have a positive impact on educational quality and student achievement (Fujimoto, 2012, p. 256). However, in most institutions faculty and staff are still 80-90% White (Kayes, 2006, p. 65). Additional findings by (Turner, 2002; Kayes 2006), show importance of faculty and staff diversity and the need for greater efforts. According to Kayes (2006), there is growing gap between the multicultural student population and the monocultural faculty/staff demographic that has become a major educational and political problem (p.
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