The divine command theory, utilitarianism, Kant’s duty defined morality, natural law theory, and Aristotle’s virtue ethics are the five types of ethical theories. The divine command theory states that what is morally right and wrong will be decided by God. Utilitarianism states that “Action “A” is morally right if and only if it produces the greatest amount of overall happiness. Kant’s duty defined morality states that what is important is acting for the sake of producing good consequences, no matter what the act is. Natural law theory states that people should focus on the good and avoid any evil. The last theory is Aristotle’s virtue ethics which states that we should move from the concern towards good action and to focus on the concern with good character. This paper argues that Aristotle’s virtue ethics is better than the other ethical theories.
In this paper I am going to explain what Divine Command Theory is. Then I will explain an objection to it called the Euthyphro Objection. Lastly I will explain Quinn’s response to the Euthyphro Objection and raise an objection to his treatment of the objection. Before I explain Divine Command Theory first I want to explain morality according to Quinn. Quinn states that morality is based on three concepts: rightness, wrongness, and obligation (515).
In “The Black Veil” by Nathaniel Hawthorne and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” by Jonathan Edwards both have a similar yet different style of writing and delivery.however Edwards gave more detail to make to his sermon which made it more effective than Hawthorne were his was of an inference to the theme. Edwards and Hawthorne diction was archaic, the themes of the texts was that everyone is a sinner whether a black veil is upon a face or hanging from the hand of God.
This means that whatever God actions that He determines are right are therefore considered right. For example, it is commonly thought that killing someone is wrong and immoral, but under this theory, if God were to say that it is okay to kill someone, than an individual
Concept Of fallacious arguments and analysis of fallacious arguments in the movie Twelve Angry-Men :- Fallacy is a misconception which results from incorrect reasoning. According to traditional accounts fallacy is a pattern of bad reasoning which appears to be a pattern of good reasoning. Some other researchers define a fallacy an argument which is not good. Basically we can divide fallacy into two parts namely informal fallacy and formal fallacy. Informal fallacy is a misconception because of its form and its content.
The seven logical fallacies; Ad Hominem (Argument to the Person): this is when you attack someone rather than the issue. For example, when you are at home and you have cleaned the whole house, then your husband comes and gets mud all over the floor the floor, instead of asking him to clean it up you get mad and start a fight. Hasty Generalization: this means that you reach a conclusion based on little or no evidence to support your claim, someone could argue it was just a coincidence. Sweeping Generalization: is something that cannot be proven not even when there is much evidence supplied. For example, most people today believe in aliens and some even say that they make crop circles in fields, even though a lot of people have seen crop circles
This is an automatic function of a fertile human body. In a society that values choice as highly as Americans do, should we not extend that autonomy to the human body? I believe it is unethical to revoke a person’s right to consent. Abortions have been performed for thousands of years. Kathleen Hanna, who could be called one of the founders of third wave feminism, expressed her opinion in a 2015 interview for The Daily Beast.
Example A skincare salesman who gets to know that the product of Company X that he is selling is actually good for skin at initial stage but causes burns after using it for a few weeks. As a consequentialist he will think about all the pros and cons of selling that product further but will eventually think that I get profit in selling these what happens to the skin of customers is none of my concern all I should do is sell as many products I can and that my role and my duty towards the company. He will think about all the consequences and then take a decision which will give him happiness at the end. Non Consequential Ethical theory
Appeal to ignorance. Appealing to ignorance is when there is lack of proof presented by the originators of a strong of assertion. Guilt by association. Guilt of association is when conclusions are directly jumped into based on proof that is not relevant to the issue.
A fallacy is defined as a mistake in an argument that arises from defective reasoning or the creation of an illusion that makes a bad argument appear good. In layman terms, Dictionary.com defines a fallacy as a deceptive, misleading or false notion, belief, etc. It is a misleading or unsound argument. Both inductive and deductive arguments may contain fallacies and if they do, they are usually uncogent or unsound. Fallacies are divided into two groups which are formal fallacy and informal fallacy.
A fallacy is the use of poor, or invalid, reasoning for the construction of an argument. In other words, it is an argument that makes an error in logic or assumptions that should not have been made. In the formal setting, an argument is two sides presenting their sides argument using logic and deductive reasoning. In the book “Writing Arguments,” authors John Ramage, John Bean, and June Johnson compare several fallacies. The authors describe the straw man fallacy as an argument when a writer constructs a misinterpreted version of an argument that distorts its original meaning and intentions in order to criticizes it as if it were the real argument (401).
The two moral reasonings are consequentialist and categorical. Consequentialist means the consequences that will result after whatever you do, whether it is the right or wrong thing to do. Categorical moral reasoning locates morality in certain duties and rights. Somethings are just morally wrong even if it brings good outcomes. According to Mill the principle of utility means realizing a consequence of something before you do it,whether your intentions are good or bad.
Consequentialist theory followers. Consequentialist theory followers focus mostly on the consequences of the decision and the action. The most famous consequentialist theory is Utilitarianism. This theory follows the principle of utility which assumes that the decision is ethical if it maximizes benefits to the society and minimizes harms.
It’s done in various parts of Asia, Africa, and parts of the Middle East. Typically, the clitioris is removed from the female with no medical personnel and is often unsanitary. An outsider may see this as a violation of the female genitals, which makes it unlawful. However, it is common in these cultures. Whether it is right or wrong is a matter of opinion.