SOPHIA COLLEGE Protein-DNA Interaction MAYUR GAIKWAD 05/05/2015 INTRODUCTION Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all fields of genetics from regulation and transcription of individual genes to repair of damaged sequences, even to the stabilization of DNA in chromatin and the replication of entire genomes. It is estimated that 2–3% of prokaryotic and 6–7% of eukaryotic genes code for DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, many of these proteins do not merely bind DNA, but also interact with other proteins and sometimes, as is shown in the example of RNA polymerase, only display theirfull activity when organized in multimeric complexes. SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA BINDING Protein recognition of specific sequences on the DNA double
INTRODUCTION Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a double helix structure strand which contain hereditary genetic material of living organisms. It is composed of small single nucleotides which makes a long polymer by repeating the nucleotide units. (Saender W, 1984) The nucleotide contains deoxyribose sugar, nitrogen-containing nucleotide and phosphate group which makes the DNA negative charge. In order to further study on human genomic material, the isolation and extraction of DNA is necessary to be carried out. DNA extraction is a process that purify DNA from a specific sample by using a series of physical and chemical methods.
These grouping peruses are then gathered into coting and the entire succession of the clone produced. NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING The guideline behind Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is like that of Sanger sequencing, which depends on slim electrophoresis. The genomic strand is divided, and the bases in each section are distinguished by transmitted signs when the pieces are ligated against a format strand. Next generation methods of DNA sequencing have three general steps which are Library preparation, amplification and sequencing. Library
Meiosis usually creates gametes that allow for sexual reproduction, such as sperm and egg. There are two main stages of meiosis: meiosis I and meiosis II. For each of these stages, there are four main phases, which are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During early prophase I, the nuclear membrane dissolves. In late prophase I, homologous chromosomes pair and become a tetrad.
There are 4 pairs of proteins (histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) involved in forming the protein core for the DNA to coil around. The DNA strand wraps twice around the core and continues to the next nucleosome. H1 histone protein links the nucleosomes to each other. Nucleosomes then coil tightly to form chromatids which are tightly condensed to form a full chromosome. This gives the chromatin a beaded appearance under an electron
Each genome contains the information needed to maintain and create the organism. The process of genetic engineering involves extracting of a small piece of cellular DNA, called a plasmid, from the bacteria if organism involved in the manipulation. A very small section of the circular plasmid is then cut out by the restriction enzymes which act as molecular scissors. The gene from the organism being modified is then inserted into this space and the plasmid is therefore modified. The genetically modified plasmid is now inserted and introduces into a new organism which starts divides rapidly.
therefore this process of DNA Profiling can be seen as a useful method of identification with marginal room for error. 1.1. DNA Profiling/Database: The concept is such that, DNA samples are taken from an individual and it is analysed in a laboratory. Further, based on this analysis, a digitized representation of numbers, of this data is created. Such representation is called a DNA Profile and is stored in an electronic DNA Database.
P. 9 #6: What are “RFLPs” and what is their significance?  RFLPs are restriction fragment length polymorphisms. If an allele separates two recognition sites and the same allele contains repeating base sequences, the variance in the base sequence repetition length will create different distances between the recognition sites. This allows for two different alleles to create varying RFLPs. P. 9 #7: List the sources of DNA samples used in forensic cases.
Inside the cell, ara-C rapidly gets activated by many phosphorylation steps to form ara-CTP (cytosine arabinoside triphosphate). When this ara-CTP is incorporated into DNA/RNA, it inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis and triggers cell death. Thus DNA replication for mitosis is affected and the cells cannot divide rapidly. The first phosphorylation step is carried out by the rate-limiting enzyme Deoxycytidine
These protease enzymes will catalyze the breakdown of the protein into amino acids throughout the stomach and small intestines. Once broken down into amino acids, the microvilli will absorb them and will send them into our cells. Inside the nucleus of the cell, a DNA molecule will be unjointed by a RNA polymerase enzyme (brought by proteins), starting a process called transcription. This process allows RNA molecules to copy the genetic information from the unjointed DNA. The RNA polymerase begins by binding itself to the first base of a gene then it starts to copy the genetic information to a RNA molecule called a Messenger RNA (MRNA).