A nucleus is basically the “brain” of a cell. It controls reproduction and contains the genetic information needed to reproduce. It can be found in eukaryotic cells. B. Endoplasmic reticulum- there are two types, the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is involved in synthesizing and packaging proteins for use.
Eg. Ferritin. Nucleic Acids  Nucleic acids are known as genetic materials. They are macromolecules meaning that they are polymers of nucleotides (phosphate group, pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base). Living matter is composed of nucleic acids in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA).
This is between the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate component of the other nucleotide, which brings about the alternating sugar phosphate backbone.All biological information is stored in DNA which makes every organism unique. There are pieces of DNA called genes which determine a particular trait in a living organism.The sugar phosphate backbone of the DNA resist against cleavage, and both double helical strands stores the biological information, which is transcribes / replicated as they separate. These DNA strands are anti-parallel to each other as they run from and are transcribed from a 3-5 end. They are similar but they run in opposite directions. The 5(prime) carbon would be located at the top of the leading strand which is replicated continuously and the carbon on the other end, where on the lagging strand the 3(prime) carbon is at the lower portion where these are replicated in sections known as Okazaki fragments.
The Secondary structure of protein consists of four structures such as alpha helix, beta sheet, coil and turn structure. Secondary structure prediction techniques are shown in fig 2.1 Statistical Methods Chou-Fasman (CF) Method Chou et. al. (1974)., proposed the Chou-Fasman method is the one of the first method for the implementation of secondary structure prediction of protein. The method involves a matrix of two values: propensity values, a given amino acid will appear within the structure and frequency values, found in a hairpin turn for a provided amino acid.
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression uses reversible modifications of DNA and chromatin structure to mediate the interaction of the genome with a variety of environmental factors and to generate changes in the patterns of gene expression in response to these factors. The epigenome refers to the epigenetic state of a cell. During
It helps the cell to transfer many molecules through the membrane. Many proteins can be found in the lipid bilayer and each has its own specific biological function. Integrins are transmembrane proteins which act as receptors for cell to cell and cell to extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Integrins attach the ECM to the cytoskeleton. It is this attachment which sends the cell messages and information about the environment surrounding it.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All amino acids have the same basic structure but differ in their R-side chains. Each amino acid consists of an amino group (-NH3), a carboxyl group (-COOH) and a hydrogen atom (H). The amino and carboxyl groups are attached to a central alpha carbon together with a hydrogen atom and an R-side chain. There are currently known that over 170 amino acids occur in organisms but only 20 are commonly found in proteins.
Initially, stretches of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) are resected at the stalled forks or DSB ends which are quickly bound by replication protein A (RPA). Rad51 replaces RPA and binds to these ssDNA with the aid of the Rad52 mediator function (21,22). Rad51 form a nucleoprotein filament, which can then engage in homology search by strand invasion forming a homologous DNA
DNA synthesis. When primers detect and limit the amplification DNA sequence on two sides, the thermostable DNA polymerase synthesizes a complementary fragment from the 3 'end of the primers from both DNA single chain fragments using the nucleotides added to the mixture. The procedure is carried out at 72 ° C, using a thermostable Taq polymerase. APPLICATIONS: The ability of the PCR to analyze a very small amount of DNA plays an important role in disease diagnostics. One of the important uses of PCR is the diagnosis of possible AIDS infection at a very early stage even before antibodies have developed .
These cells are divided into two groups: eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes might be similar, but they also have a lot of differences. First of all, eukaryotes and prokaryotes have the same basic structure. An example of this is the cytoplasm. Cytoplasm composes the volume or the inside of a cell.
1. How does DNA encode information? DNA is a double-stranded helix composed of a phosphate backbone and deoxyribose, and encodes information by the sequence of its nucleotide bases, which are composed of adenine, thiamine, guanine and cytosine. DNA undergoes transcription, which produces single-stranded mRNA, which uses uracil in place of thiamine. Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes.
Furthermore, Acinetobactor baylyi ADP1 like most organisms undergoes a process known as DNA recombination, where two complementary DNA strands cross and exchange portions of DNA. During recombination, a structure known as a Holliday Junction forms and must be resolved, completing the exchange of DNA (Aravind et al. 2000). Recombination is a crucial mechanism in both gene amplification and deletion. Specifically, ADP1 contains a protein called YqgF, a putative Holliday Junction Resolvase, due to its structural similarity to a known resolvase named RuvC (Aravind et al.
An operon is a part of DNA found in bacteria that controls gene regulation. Operons are controlled by an on switch known as the promoter. The Promoter is a place where the protein RNA polymerase binds. RNA polymerase is an enzyme that binds to DNA during transcription and unravels the DNA strands. RNA polymerase also transcribes the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule.
The Diverse Parts of Macromolecules in Science There are four sorts of macromolecules that I am going to portray: Proteins, starches, lipids and nucleic corrosive. I will likewise depict the capacities and why they are critical in our bodies. Proteins Proteins are polymers of amino acids that are joined head-to-tail in a long chain that is then collapsed into a three-dimensional structure one of a kind to every sort of protein. The covalent linkage between two contiguous amino acids in a protein (or polypeptide) chain is known as a peptide bond. There are twenty amino acids that make up proteins.