This conception allows him to isolate two features of what he determines the ‘end goal’ or ‘final purpose’. The first, it being the most perfect or most complete good and the second, that it be self sufficient. This end is not a subjective object of desire. It also cannot be assumed that this human good is something which all humans pursue. Rather, it is what we should pursue and as such provides us with a standard that can normatively evaluate the good of human life.
Moral philosophers say that the main contribution of Hutcheson to the concept of moral sense is that he describes the working of moral sense. The process, Hutcheson described, begins with a feeling of pleasure or advantage felt in the moral sense faculty - not necessarily to us but advantageous to someone or generally for everyone. This perception of pleasure has a specific moral taste and causes us to feel moral approbation. We feel this pleasure when considering what is good or beneficial to others as a part of our natural instinct of benevolence. The things pursued for this pleasure are wanted because of our self-love and interest in the good for others.
First, the theory of ethical egoism. According to this theory, “actions are morally right because they maximize self-interest” (Farias, 2012, slide 6). When occupational therapists agree to perform duties or work on skills that are outside of the OT scope of services, they are working to promote their own self-interests and well-being. It feels good to help others and when we believe that we are going above and beyond to keep our clients happy, we are doing what is in our best interests. Since ethical egoism states that “it is individualistic, and the right thing to do is maximize one’s own utility,” then this dilemma holds true (Burgess-Jackson, 2013, p. 532).
Consequently, the principles of beneficence desire more than just adhering to the principles of nonmaleficence. Beneficence is a central piece of many moral theories. The utilitarian theory is based on the principle of utility, namely, acts are justifiable if they provide the greatest benefit for the greatest number of people (Mandal, Ponnambath & Parija, 2016). According to the principle of utility, it is more beneficial to give an organ to an individual whose illness was not caused by lifestyle choices. There are many evidence supporting this statement.
E.g. the happiness of your life depends on the quality of your thought; therefore, make sure that you do not entertain unsuitable notions to virtue and reasonable nature. Then the idea of “in accordance with nature” was from a biological outlook. Sentient life of human strives towards self-preservation that leads a being to look for which is in tune with its nature. Whilst many thinkers might suppose health and wealth are in tune with human, the central of Marcus’s stoic concern on only infallible good is the virtue: wisdom, justice, courage, and
These standards of behaviors are set by government, professional bodies, organizations and community groups. This is mainly because theses societies are in some part of the world valued. Being ethical gives you a source of motivation that provides a sense of satisfaction. When you feel like you are making a valuable contribution to the happiness and the wellbeing of others. This creates an emotional high which can attribute to them doing a good job.
Moral virtue can be defined as, “A dispositional trait of character that is morally valuable and reliably present” (Beauchamp and Childress, 31). Moral virtue is important in virtually every situation that we encounter in our everyday lives. For example, a person would be considered virtuous if they were consistently trustworthy in everyday situations. Trustworthiness is a trait that is generally considered to be morally valuable; however, the key to it being a virtue is that the person must possess that trait consistently. It is not enough for one to merely exhibit that trait once.
The major theory of ethics that this argument relies on is Utilitarianism. Utilitarianism (U) is characterised by carrying out an action to produce the greatest amount of good (or “utility”) for the greatest number of people, regardless of whether or not the action is right or wrong. The word “good” is defined as a sense of satisfaction, gain or welfare – according to the Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus. Alternatively, the theory focuses on reducing the total amount of harm imposed on the greatest number of people. Viewing this theory from either perspective will generate an overall positive outcome.
Humanism is about maximizing the safety, well-being and potential prosperity of all people in our society; putting emphasis on human values, on human rights and on humane behaviour towards each other. It is the notion that only through reason, respect, empathy and compassion we can create a more beneficial society for all, with justice and equality. It is a set of principles that can appeal to the whole of society regardless of their personally held religious beliefs or atheism as it is about designing society, through optimising human collaboration, around what benefits us all in this life, here and now, in the shared social space. In today 's climate, financial meltdown, global pollution, corruption of the democratic process, inequality across society, we need, more than ever, a plan for our collective future, for our very survival, for our continued well-being and for the opportunity to prosper in all segments of our society. This democratic values and principles should be the political philosophy, economic model and vision for a better world; this is democratic Humanism .