Essay 112: Vitamin K and the Coagulation Cascade The human blood clotting cascade consists of a tightly regulated network of enzymes designed to contain damage to the blood vessels by means of coagulation, thus restoring vascular integrity. Briefly, when a blood vessel suffers penetrating trauma, blunt force trauma, or an internal rupture the clotting cascade swings into action. The various proteins activate one another culminating in the formation of a clot composed of a platelet plug and cross linked strands of fibrin.
NtRTIs stops this reverse transcription, thus interrupts HIV replication and prevents HIV from infecting human cells. Tenofovir is also used for the treatment of Hepatitis B. Market availability of Tenofovir is in the name of Viread. The recommended dosage of Tenofovir is 300 mg taken once daily with
Drug Profile: KEYTRUDA 1. Introduction KEYTRUDA (MK-3475) is a blockbuster immune modulator by Merck for patients with advanced stages of malignancy. The U.S. FDA has assigned MK-3475 a Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Metastatic Melanoma. It is a humanized monoclonal IgG4 antibody against human cell surface receptor PD-1. KEYTRUDA is the 6th approved drug for melanoma and is indicated for patients who have undergone prior treatment with ipilimumab.
Working on the success of Abraxane, nab-rapamycin was also prepared. Rapamycin (also known as sirolimus) works by inhibiting the signals from intracellular kinase (mTOR) which further inhibits cell proliferation. Rapamycin also had poor solubility similar to PTX hence, nab rapamycin was prepared to overcome this barrier and increase its efficacy. The nanoformulation proved to be efficacious in preclinical studies (breast tumor xenograft model) and the drug (ABI-009) is undergoing Phase I-III trials in humans for multiple carcinomas including advanced sarcoma, advanced malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, non muscle invasive bladder cancer and recurrent or refractory solid tumors [82,
During surgery, biopsy was taken from the edge of the ulcer to test for the presence of helicobacter pylori. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histology. If it was positive, a triple therapy regimen consisting of amoxicillin,pantoprazole and metronidazole for one week was administered on resumption of oral intake. Patient taking non-steroidal anti-inflamatery drugs were adiveed to stop these drugs.
MELATONIN, IMMUNITY AND STEROIDS ABSTRACT Melatonin is the secretion of pineal gland and a broad range of physiological functions are modulated by this hormone. Available finding of research shows that it is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory hormone. In this review, melatonin and its interactions with immune system as well as steroids have been discussed. The immune system protects the body from microorganisms present all around the environment. The anti-inflammatory nature of melatonin connects it with the immune system.
May be used in children to avoid systemic steroids 3 Fluticasone 18 1200 May cause fewer systemic side effects than others Adverse effects of inhaled steroids • At the lowest recommended daily dose for adults, there is no prolonged suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary– adrenal (HPA) axis. Higher doses can produce clinically important depression of adrenal function. • Candidiasis of the pharynx or larynx occurs in 10–15% of patients. Using the minimum effective dose, or a ‘spacer device’, or gargling/using mouthwashes after dosing, minimizes this problem. • A hoarse voice may develop due to a laryngeal myopathy at high doses.
Most western, industrialized countries have rejected water fluoridation, but have nevertheless experienced the same decline in childhood dental decay as fluoridated countries (50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoridation). Conclusion Should we be worried about fluoride in water? Fluoride has been added to water since 1945. Most of us have drank fluoridated water most of our lives.
Patients are treated with chemotherapy before surgery and also after having the surgery done for about 10 weeks. People with osteosarcomas that reacted well to chemotherapy before surgery usually get the same chemo drugs after surgery. People whose tumors responded poorly usually get distant chemo after surgery. A report suggests, although application intensification boosts the digit of patients with a satisfying histological response, it does not shift overall survival.
There are numerous parts for cardiovascular ultrasound throughout potentially cardiotoxic cancer treatment regimens. Primarily, prior to potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, echocardiography can safeguard that patients do not already have diminished cardiac function. Subsequently, throughout chemotherapy, cardiovascular ultrasound can monitor ventricular function to eliminate chemotherapy-induced dysfunction. Preceding, the follow-up treatment, cardiovascular ultrasound can regulate new symptoms that are potentially caused from cardiac disease.
SRT1720 Description: EC50: 0.16 μM SRT1720 is a selective activator of SIRT1. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies using various cancer cell models show the role of SIRT1 either as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene. The oncogenic potential of SIRT1 is exemplified by studies indicating that blockade of SIRT1, like other HDACs, triggers growth arrest and apoptosis in breast, colon and lung cancers.
C4564 Description: IC50: 3-AP is a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and iron chelator with antitumor activity. Ribonucleotide reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo DNA synthesis, is an excellent target for chemotherapy. Its increased activity in cancer cells is associated with malignant transformation and proliferation.
The first one is Gardasil, approved in, 2006 and the second one is Cervarix, approved in 2009 by the FDA. Although Gardasil protects against four HPV types (6, 11, 16, and 18), and it is approved for use by females aged 9-26 to help prevent cancer of the vagina, cervix, anal, vulva, also genital warts, there are many reported side effects(KRUSZELNICKI, 2014). According to Gardasil.com, the side effects include pain, swelling, itching, bruising, and redness at the injection site, headache, fever, dizziness,
The mechanism of action is as follows: Initially, given that it is a pro drug, it should be activated by the mycobacterium catalase peroxidase enzyme, which is regulated by the kat G gene. Then it enters tuberculosis bacilli by active diffusion. After activation by kat G, isoniazid converted to a wide range of radicals or reactive species and isotonic acids which can include both inactive oxygen species and radical species organic radicals. These radicals and species role is to attack multiple targets include: mycolic acid Synthesis, damage to DNA, lipid peroxidation and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism in the cell.