And last, he states that there is a perseverance of saints, therefore all who are saved are saved for eternity. Calvin expressed these ideas in the Institutes of the Christian Religion. This work of his was received with both criticism and intrigue. Calvin’s ideas were very radical, but he sought to back each of them up with what he believed was the ultimate authority of the Scripture. Calvin combats the idea that the church gives Scripture its authority because he believes that the Bible offers “as clear evidence of its truth, as white and black things do of their color, or sweet and bitter things of their taste” (31).
Summary: Green begins his chapter by outlining two of the main ways that he sees popular Atonement Theology spreading. The first is the popular “Penal Substitution” doctrine, and the other is a disregard for the doctrine of Atonement Theology altogether. He then begins to form an argument against “Penal Substitution” by attacking the concept of God as the subject of the cross and Jesus as the object, an image that, to Green, paints God as an abusive father. In the same line of thinking, he debates the literal take that most Christians adopt when it comes to the New Testament metaphors. He argues that we as Christians cannot found our entire Atonement Theology on these metaphors, as their descriptive capabilities can only go so far before they break down.
For Luther true worship of God is summed up in fear of God. However simple this may seem there are some particular nuances to this fear that can be seen throughout Luther’s lectures on the psalms that help illustrate his theological position. In the small catechism of 1529 Luther said of the first commandment that we should fear, love, and trust God above all things. If in other places, e.g., the Large Catechism, we fulfill the first commandment by faith along, here fear, love, and trust are all three involved. We find the three again in the Large Catechism in the introduction to the fourth commandment, which looks back to the first three and says that it is a requirement of the first that we should wholeheartedly trust, fear, and love in the whole of our lives.
Luther the German Patriot and Founding Father Martin Luther is the “founding father” of Christianity, he started the Protestant Reformation. He was motivated by his fear of God and going to hell. Becoming a monk and giving up his legal carrier led him to his own enlightenment by reading the Book of Romans in the Bible. While he was trying to find his own salvation, he strongly disagreed with the corruption of the Catholic church. He realized that he can justify his own faith so as others.
Martin Luther lists the Ten Commandments, top among them the commandment against idolatry. Idolatry, according to the book, means having a wrong and false trust which translates to not serving the right God. I find Luther’s interpretation of idolatry insightful, particularly his analysis of the first commandment as demanding sole trust in God without ever seeking any other god. Luther further adds that idolatry goes beyond erecting and worshiping images to trusting, seeking, and pursuance of help and consolation from sources other than God. This interpretation widens the scope of idolatry beyond the common perspective of the practice, an interpretation I find enlightening and which introduces a new dimension to the understanding of the practice of idolatry.
The second Sola was: Sola Fide, meaning that we aren't saved by works or good deeds but by faith alone in Jesus Christ. Luther loved to emphasize this and teach that you can’t get to heaven through good works. The Third Sola, Sola Gratia meant: That we are only saved by God's grace not our deeds. Martin Luther couldn’t stress enough that we are loved by God and
Augustine, in his work The Perfection of Human Righteousness, combatted the heresy of Pelagianism as described by Caelestius in his treatise, The Definitions Attributed to Caelestius. Following Pelagius, Caelestius by logic and Scripture argued that the Fall did not destroy man’s natural capability to do right. Caelestius argued that God made us free to do the good and thus we all have the power not to sin, and that both the devil and Adam’s original sin are unable to destroy this power. As proof Caelestius gave examples of Old Testament saints who he claimed lived holy lives. Augustine refutes Caelestius’ ideas by using Scripture to show that we are righteous only by the grace of God through Jesus Christ.
However, their sins will be washed away by the blood of Jesus as long as they respond to the election. Election may mean a call to be wary of the sinful ways that may distance them from the almighty God and his unending mercies. The fourth point of Calvinism is irresistible grace. According to this tenet, it is not possible to fail to respond to God’s call. It is a call that is powered by the Holy Spirit.
He reminds the Anabaptists of 1944 that their faith is rooted upon peaceful thinking. They should not and do not engage in violent actions such as war, vengeance, and/or taking arms contradictory to the environment that existed in World War II. They believe that all of these actions are unnecessary because they are “no longer under the Old Covenant” (21) and as previously stated, Jesus have already overcome the world. Therefore, Anabaptists, despite the hardships of the war, remained pacifists because of their love of God and love of their
The message, then, that it was not up to him to earn righteousness, but that it came as a free gift from God, was a tremendous relief for him. This is the central Lutheran doctrine of justification by faith alone, and it lies at the heart of everything Luther said, wrote, and did. Faith for Luther was the confidence that God had graciously forgiven his sins. It had several important consequences that determined the Lutheran sacred narrative of
The Great Awakening unleashed a new wave of conversions driven by a desire to be cleansed of sin and avoid eternal punishment. These beliefs depend on a fear of God rather than sole worship, as He is portrayed to be a spiteful, all-powerful being. In my teaching, the fear of God was not placed within me. Instead, a deeper trust in God’s saving powers was instilled upon my beliefs, which attempted to draw belief from love rather than fear. God was portrayed as an all-loving being attempting to free us from the control of sin, which quite evidently contradicts the image of a vengeful God.
In part II of Lewis book he describes several different scenarios of Christians beliefs. He first talked about the difference between Christian Pantheism and the Christian idea of God. (pp.36). I myself as a Christian believe that God is beyond good and evil, that he is good and righteous, he loves love and hates hatred. Whereas, in Pantheism, one believes that God is part of the universe, without the universe God would not exist.
According to the text Martin Luther stated “God will grant salvation because God is merciful. God’s grace cannot be earned by performing good works. This idea, called justification being made right before God” (Spielvogel pg. 173) It explains in my text how Martin Luther felt about the Catholic Church’s teaching and how he thought how the Catholic Church should be teaching its
In comparison, each document has the same idea on the new concepts and doctrines of Lutheranism. As stated before, the Roman Catholic Church has views that Martin Luther did not agree with. These are clearly shown throughout each document. “They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine” said in the thirty-fifth thesis expresses the wrongful doing of the Roman Catholic’s indulgences. “When speaking to God, we should plead guilty to all sins, even those we don 't know about, just as we do in the ‘Our Father,’” said in The Small Catechism of Martin Luther indicates the new form of confession that the Roman Catholic Church
God manifests himself in what Christians regard as true and in our daily actions. C.S Lewis outlines in Book Two of Mere Christianity what we, as Christians, believe and why we have come to these conclusions. He explains opposition to Christianity and how we must quell the outbursts of non-believers. Using succinct and simple language he not only legitimizes God’s existence but His effect on humanity. In the first subcategory of Book Two, Lewis discusses his conversion from atheism to Christianity and how it relates to his worldview.