Dragon Fruit Literature Review

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Review of Related Literature 2.1.1. Dragon fruit Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) is grown in Southeast Asia and some part of Central and South America. This fruit is known because of its unique appearance, health benefits and other nutritional content. Dragon fruits can be consumed not only fresh but can also be made into different products such as juice, pastries, sweets, jellies, and even wine. (Liaotrakoon, 2012) There are three different types of dragon fruit grown: Hylocereus polyrhizus (red-skinned fruit with red flesh), Hylocereus undatus (red-skinned fruit with white flesh), and Hylocereus megalanthus (yellow-skinned fruit with white flesh). They show antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions.…show more content…
It is more difficult to perform than the modified trichrome stain. The stain used alcoholic iodine to remove mercuric chloride from Schaudinn’s and PVA-fixed smears, then rinsed by alcohol. Hematoxylin stain contains a mordant. De-staining is done by picric acid while alcohol and xylene is used for dehydration and cleaning of the smear. Iron Hematoxylin stain is best used within 3-5 days after preparation. When used immediately after preparation, the stain would be an intense blue with small nuclear details. The stain can be used for a week and can be extended by storing it in a stoppered bottle in the dark after use. (“Fixatives, Reagents and Stains,” 2013) The results show more definite nuclear and cytoplasmic characteristics. 2.1.5. Soxhlet Extraction Soxhlet extraction is used when there is a compound that has limited solubility in solvent, and the impurity is insoluble in the solvent. Invented by Franz von Soxhlet, it functions as an extractor of lipid from solid material. (William B. Jensen Vol. 84 No. 12 December 2007, 2007) When extracting a material, it is placed on a thimble that is loaded in the main chamber. Then the soxhlet extractor is placed with the solvent. The solvent is then heated to reflux. Then the material will be filled with the warmed solvent which will dissolve the desired compound. This process is repeated many times. (Extraction,…show more content…
It is prevalent worldwide most especially in tropical and subtropical countries. It can occur at all ages but more prevalent in 5 to 9 years old children. There is higher incidence in poor rural population. Adult Ascaris lumbricoides is characterized by its great size. Males are 2 to 4mm in diameter and 10 to 30 cm long. Its posterior end is curved ventrally with two spicules, but no copulatory bursa. Females are 3 to 6 mm wide and 20 to 35 cm long. Its vulca is located in the anterior end and accounts for about a third of its body length. Its posterior end is straight and conical. Both female and males’ mouth at the anterior end has three finely denticulate lips, one dorsal and two

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