4- Set up reflux system using a clean and dry condenser . 5- Place the flask on the hot plate and heat the reaction for 45 minutes - 1 hour . 6- When the reflux is over , remove magnetic stirrer and allow the reaction to cool to room temperature . 7- Add 20 ml of ice water to a separating funnel
Basically, the bottom layer is the aqueous layer while the upper layer is the organic compound. However, this situation may be vice versa due to the relative densities of the two solutions. The extraction process is used to repeat in several times in order to ensure all of the organic compounds are fully drained out. Granular sodium sulfate will act as drying agent to remove the last traces of water from organic
Throughout the mixing process, the clear red solution slowly changes to a denser red solution (Appendix figure 23). A thermometer was used for temperature checking. The beaker was removed from the hot plate when the temperature was found to be higher than 50 ℃. This was done to prevent a sudden gelation happen before all the active dissolved in the ethylene glycol. Moderate heating of the solution for a period of time is allowed to obtain a wet gel (Appendix figure 24).
Basil and mint are both versatile herbs that belong to the Lamiaceae family. Basil is widely used in Mediterranean dishes while mint is more popular in the Middle East and parts of Asia. These two herbs share certain qualities but also have very definite differences. In this SPICEography Showdown, we will compare mint and basil to highlight their differences and similarities. Do basil and mint differ in flavor?
The ester studied was “3,” the acid used was 9.5 mL of “B,” and the alcohol used was 18.1 mL of “C.” A few substances were added to augment the production of the ester. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added using a dropper bottle to catalyze the reaction. The desiccant in this reaction was drierite and was used to absorb the water byproduct. This prevented the ester from breaking apart into its constituents. The cold finger condenser was used to trap evaporated gas from the heated mixture, and condense it back into
Shown below is the final product.Usually during a chemical reaction it is understable for there to a noticeable change, which is why it was expected to see a foggy white color during the reaction. But it was unexpected for the reaction to take as long as it did (about 45 minutes) and for the zinc to start clumping together. CuSO4(aq) +Zn(s) Cu(s) +ZnSO4(aq) Washing with
500gms of fresh beetroot or its hairy root has to be homogenized with sand continuously for three times in 70% ethanol (100mg/L).Then extracts will be centrifuged at 10xg for half an hour and supernatants will be allowed to vaporise at 40°C under vacuum till they get dried. Then, the residues will be dissolve in 0.5L of 70% of methanol and this sample-methanol mixtures keep in refrigerator at -20 degrees for 24hr, consequently thawed and supernatants are carefully collected from the precipitate. Under vacuum, methanol will be evaporated, at 40°C, from the supernatants and following betalains are lyophilized from aqueous fractions and finally 6.5gms of dry betalains will be obtained (Christ, Alpha 1-2,
When the solution reaches equilibrium, there would still be a large amount of reactants left. After the reflux, the ester solution produced would be poured into a bottle, this is when a dense smoke could be seen, this is because a hot ester is very volatile, this is when some ester solution would evaporate away, resulting in the poor yield of the ester solution. Another reason why the amount of ester gotten is so little is that the reaction is reversible therefore the reaction would not go to completion. The final reason resulting to the poor yield of ester produced is that during the isolation process where the ester solution is washed, some ester would be lost as some of the ester solution might be removed together with the organic
DMF was used as a solvent and AIBN (0.5% w/w of total monomer) as free radical initiator .The reaction was carried out at 70±2° C for 6 hour with constant stirring. After completion of the process it was cooled to room temperature and resultant polymer solution was poured in the large amount of methanol with stirring when polymer precipitated out. It was filtered and washed with methanol. The polymer was purified by repeated precipitation using methanol from solution in DMF and then it dried. 2.3 Preparation of PS
After dropped completely the copper manganese solution into the precipitant ageing for 2h, then filtered, washing several times with hot deionized water. After washing drying the precursor in an oven and calcination it in flowing air calcination conditions before measuring of the catalyst activity test. The amount of copper was added varied to the preparation of CuMnOx catalysts with nominal Cu/Mn molar ratios. After drying of the precursors their granules were crushed into powdered form for activity measurement purposes. 2.2 Characterization of catalysts The Scanning electron micrographs (SEM-EDX) produced the high-resolution image of a catalyst by an electron beam and the