Constitution and altered it by explicitly protecting the institution of slavery. This peculiar institution was what made the Confederacy unique. Sectionalism over economic, social, political, and constitutional issues regarding slavery continued from Buchanan’s inauguration in 1857 until secession after Lincoln’s election in 1860. “The expansion of slavery into western territories provided the catalyst for the growing perceptions of northerners and southerners that they held different intentions of the republic’s future.” “In the South, loyalty to slavery and its required expansion became the hallmark of party politics as the region’s politicians—Whigs, Know-Nothing, and Democrat—competed to demonstrate their loyalty to southern rights.”
With the passage of a harsher fugitive slave law as a part of the Compromise of 1850, the abolitionist movement became even more fervent in its efforts to halt slavery as abolitionists assisted runaways, abused slave catchers, and outright did not follow the federal law, even in the face of federal marshalls. As a result of this outright defiance of federal law, southerners’ connotations of the abolitionist movement being associated with the entire northern population were further solidified. In conjunction with the lack of enforcement of the fugitive slave law, southerners increasingly viewed the violent confrontations in Kansas as an outright effort to uproot slavery and its expansion. In an act of defiance against Stephen Douglas’s popular sovereignty established in the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, abolitionists flooded into Kansas and Nebraska in an effort to incorporate both states as free states and directly halt the expansion of slavery into the territories. Violence and bloodshed broke out as pseudo-militia groups attacked one another in a low scale civil war.
Dred Scott v. Sandford is one of the darkest cases in the history of the Supreme Court. After years of slavery, parts of the United States were beginning to head in a direction away from slavery. The establishment of the Missouri Compromise and gaining some territories as slave states and others as free states, was proof of this shift from slavery, especially in the north (Pearson Education Inc. 2005). The Scott v. Sandford decision, in which an African American man was denied both his freedom and his citizenship to the United States, did not link up with this new way of thinking.
In the speech, Lincoln never comes out and says an apparent solution to slavery or addresses the abolishment of slavery. However, Lincoln proposed solutions that may have sparked the end of slavery. Lincoln addressed that he wanted the states to agree on the subject of slavery and said, “Either the opponents of slavery, will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new—North as well as South.” This being said, if the states eventually agreed on the extinction of slavery, even if it took a war, this would have ultimately been a solution to slavery. Lincoln also said, “We shall lie down pleasantly dreaming that the people of Missouri are on the verge of making their State free; and we shall awake to the reality, instead, that the Supreme Court has made Illinois a slave State.
After the Andrew Johnson’s resistance to reconstruction included bring Confederate states into the Union and letting the African American men vote. Under his held ideals of “white suffrage”. It pitted him in opposition against Congress; thus, his stubborn stance against Reconstruction is the real reason that lead to his impeachment hearing under the Tenure of Office Act of 1867, which is a federal law that passed by congress to restrict the power of the President remove people from office without the approval of the Senate, when he removed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton from his office. Reconstruction was the period following the Civil War, when the states of the Confederacy where the government controlled bringing them back into the union and gave rights to African Americans in the process. White suffrage simply meant: only white males could vote.
During the Civil War each side had some advantages and disadvantages. Before the Civil War there was the election of 1860, President Lincoln was elected president. The south knew that Lincoln wanted to abolish slavery, so the south seceded from the union. Then there was the attack on Fort Sumter, and the war began. “The war that ensued started at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, on April 12, 1861, and lasted four years”(Confederate.., pg1).
At the end of the Civil War between the North and South arose the Reconstruction era. This was a time period of the late 1800s where the united states, specifically the North started to attempt the rebuilding of the South. Abolitionists were eager to see the end of slavery and Lincoln attempted to end slavery. President Lincoln attempted to put in place the Emancipation Proclamation which stated all slaves in confederate states would be free. This was to weaken the southern states; except, the confederate states did not obey.
Even after the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln wanted to colonize blacks in the Southwest United States. England and France being close to joining the Confederacy and Northern casualties forced Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln was not happy that he had to do this saying he had “been anxious to avoid it”, that he was “driven to it”, that it was painful, and he was trembling while signing the document. The Emancipation Proclamation freed few slaves since it did not apply to slaves in the Border States and areas under federal control in the South. Lincoln freed slaves where he had no power and did nothing where he had power.
The start of Democrats and Republicans was slavery. The Republicans were not for slavery, while the Democrats were. The south believed that the Bible said that African Americans were inferior to whites, and were meant to be their slaves. Once freed, the north attempted to integrate the African Americans through bills. The south did everything to restrict their freedom.
Earlier antislavery movements proposed for a slow emancipation of slaves. However, the abolitionist movement called for immediate emancipation of all slaves. This made the movement more radical, and ultimately arose hostility between the Northern and Southern States (History.com, 2009). Previous antislavery advocates thought that a gradual emancipation was best in order to remain peace between the states.
For example, in the cartoon is state “no, he didn’t this fight, called “the battle of Black Jack, is consider by some historians the first battle of the civil war. This demonstrate that the decision of the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case affected Kansas, which was becoming a tuning place of battles and fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery people. In conclusion, Kansas, after the declaring the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, became a place of tension and conflict between people from Kansas who were against of slavery, and people from others states that were in favor of slavery and wanted slavery in order to increase their wealth as it was demonstrated in the cartoon “Bleeding Kansas”. Finally, the Dred Scott Decision was of great importance to the United States because it let to the end of slavery in the United
Toombs believes that the South has the right to secede from the union. Toombs makes it clear in his speech that the Confederate states are pro slavery and the Union States are against slavery. In his speech Toombs states that “In 1820, the Northern party, endeavored to exclude the State of Missouri from admission into the Union, because she chose to protect African slavery in the new state.” When Toombs states this he is telling the people that the North made a bad decision when it came to Missouri wanting to be a part of the Union over slavery beliefs. Toombs also states in his speech that “Another one of our guarantees of the Constitution was, that fugitives from justice, committing crimes in one state and fleeing to another, should be delivered up by the State into which they might flee to the authorities of the State from whence they fled and where the crime was committed.”
The Missouri Compromise was definite attempt by the government to shove the issue out of view. By the time the Missouri Compromise was introduced, a few northern states were already in the process of abolishing slavery, as was England. The government was finally recognizing the cruelties of slavery but did not want to anger the southern plantation owners. Thus, they created the Missouri Compromise in order to ease their guilt and face the least contempt. The Missouri Compromise was only able to increase the brewing conflict of slavery between northern states and southern states.
The Republican Party was committed to restricting the growth of slavery, and its victory in the election of 1860 was the trigger for secession acts by Southern states. The debate before 1860 was mainly focused on the Western territories, especially Kansas and the popular sovereignty controversy. Lincoln was nominated as the Republican candidate for president in the election of 1860. Lincoln was opposed to the expansion of slavery into new areas, but held that the federal government was prevented by the Constitution from banning slavery in states where it already existed. His plan was to halt the spread of slavery, and to offer monetary compensation to slave-owners in states that agreed to end slavery (see Compensated emancipation).
He created an omnibus series of bills known collectively as the Compromise of 1850 that were aimed at appeasing both the North and the South. The Compromise of 1850 consisted of four important aspects: California would enter as a free state, the slave trade in Washington D.C. would end, popular sovereignty (the people who lived there) would decide slavery in New Mexico and Utah, and, for the south, a stricter fugitive slave law would be enacted, forcing northern authorities to return escaped slaves to the south. It was not passed in Clay’s lifetime, but its bills were later pushed through by Millard Fillmore after President Zachary Taylor’s death. The Compromise was Henry Clay’s last stand in delaying the onset of the impending Civil