Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable pH 3. Controlled Variables temperature, amount of substrate (sucrose) present, sucrase + sucrose incubation time Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable temperature 3.
7: Zero order plot for optimized formulation Fig No 8: First order plot for optimized formulation Fig No 9: Higuchi plot for optimized formulation Fig No 10: Peppas plot for optimized formulation STABILITY STUDIES The stability studies were carried out according to the procedure described in the previous section. The results were shown in the table below: Table 2.1: % Entrapment efficiency and % Drug content after stability studies (T6) Number of Days % Entrapment Efficiency at temperatures % Drug Content at temperatures 4±2oC 25±2oC 37±2oC 4±2oC 25±2oC 37±2oC 15 88.5 87.82 88.83 93.6 93.1 93.6 30 87.3 86.71 88.05 93.1 92.5 92.6 90 87.0 86.18 87.70 92.6 92.7 91.2 SUMMARY The work was carried out to prepare Itraconazole transfersomal gel to achieve controlled release effect at the site of administration The pre-formulation studies like UV analysis of Itraconazole, FTIR were complied with BP standards. The FTIR spectra revealed that there were no interactions between the drug and the carriers. Transfersome formulations were prepared by thin film hydration technique and were incorporated into 2% carbopol gel. The Formulation T6 containing Lecithin: Span-80 in ratio 85:15(%w/w) has higher entrapment efficiency and maximum drug
As discussed in section 4.0, the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fuels and chemicals via soluble sugar intermediates requires a pretreatment step prior to the biological steps of enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (Mosier et al. 2005a). This pretreatment process helps to overcome the natural resistance of lignocellulosic feedstocks to biological degradation and reduces the recalcitrance of cellulose and hemicellulose to better enable conversion of these structural carbohydrates to soluble sugars (Elander et al., 2009). The pretreatment step is the most expensive capital investment in the biochemical conversion route of lignocellulosic feedstocks to ethanol (Wooley et al. 1999) and has been found to substantially
For investigation of treatment effect 21 days after the alfalfa solution administration, blood sample of all animals prepared and Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (Chol), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), Very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), glucose, the liver enzymes aspartate transaminase(AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Histological studies After a 3-week experimental period and the last blood sampling, the whole pancreas and liver was removed after sacrificing the animal and was fixed in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. Sections were cut and stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological examination(10). Statistical Analysis: Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS software version 13.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Between-group comparisons of biochemical factors were carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test.
At the temperatures 400, 500, and 600 °C, the so prepared sulfated tin oxide catalysts were calcinated. These catalysts were analyzed in the solvent free synthesis of 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin from ethylacetoacetate:resorcinol (molar ratio 2: 1) at 120 °C by using the Pechmann condensation methodology.49 The FT-IR spectra in pyridine of these catalysts clearly indicated the existance of the Lewis acid sites and the Bronsted acid sites on the surface of the catalyst. It was also observed that the percentage of yield of product increased with increase in the acidity of the catalyst surface. By mainitaining a calcination temperature of 400 °C and 25 weight percentage sulfate content a maximum yield of the 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin was obtained as shown in the Scheme
Each gram of rice powder loaded with fungus contained (7x107 conidia /ml) which considered the highest concentration that gave the highest mortality rate in previous bioassay experiment, then the treated wheat with T. album in addition to control wheat were infested with an insect, R. dominica an early stage of the infection and stored in plastic jars (1 liter) covered with muslin cloth at 25±1 ºC and 80-90% RH for six months. 5. Physicochemical properties of stored wheat Healthy kernels of wheat variety without infestation was used as a control. Infested wheat, wheat treated with Trichoderma albums (treated wheat) after six months of storage as described above in addition to control sample were milled in a laboratory mill. The resulting flour samples were used for physiochemical analysis.
pruriens seed extract and FeMPn were characterized with FTIR to determine the biomolecules contained in the extract that involved in the reaction to form FeMPn. The FTIR spectra of the extract and FeMPn are shown in Fig. 5. The FTIR spectrum of the extract showed a broad absorption band in an absorbance area of 3384.8 cm-1 that assigned to the overlapping of O-H stretching vibration of flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenols, alcohols or water and N-H stretching vibration of amine compounds, due to the hydrogen bonding. The absorption band at 1627.8 cm-1 referred to C=C stretching vibration which is possible to be derived from aromatic ring in amino acid, while the absorption band in 1529.4 cm-1 referred to N-H bending vibration of amine which is possible to be derived from the L-dopa.
After deparaffinization and rehydration, the sections were incubated in 0.1% (w/v) Sirius red F3BA (C.I.35780) in saturated picric acid solution for 1 hr at room temperature; sections were then rinsed with distilled water followed by staining with Weigert’s haematoxylin. Differentiation was done in 1% HCl, followed by alkalization with tap water. The sections were then dehydrated and mounted in DPX.9,10 To evaluate birefringence pattern of collagen fibers, the sections were examined under 40x magnification using Olympus polarized light microscope (BX43) along with image analysis system software (ProgRes, Speed XT core3). Randomly 100 fibers were examined in each tissue sample and were segregated into thick (1.6-2.4 µm) and thin fibers (0.8µm or less). The obtained score were tabulated and the statistical analysis was done using “Z” test to compare the proportion of thick and thin fibers among males and females.
Exogenous application of SA alleviated the harmful effects of salt stress in plants and enhanced the physiological, biochemical and molecular events related to plant growth and development (Hayat et al., 2010).Foliar application of SA on salt stressed mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) reduced the negative impact of salinity as it increased nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and Calcium uptake content, and increased the activities of , photosynthesis antioxidant enzymes, and final yield (Khan et al., 2010). Two cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) varying in their salinity tolerance were subjected to 50 mM NaCl, foliar application of salicylic acid could alleviated induced salinity stress It was reported that 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM SA alleviate induced salinity stress by increasing nutrients content, photosynthetic and growth characteristics, and antioxidant enzymes activities (Syeed et al., 2011). In their study on tomato (Lycopersicun esculentum Mill.) Zahra et al. (2011) found that SA mitigated the toxic effect of salinity stress by regulating proline, protein and sugar contents.
Optimization of total phenolics content and total antioxidant activity of black tea using response surface methodology Tah Clovis Tiku1, Feumba Dibanda Romelle2, Yadang Germaine2, Nyobe Emillienne Carine2, Achegui Nestor2, Medoua Nama Gabriel, Mbofung Carl Moses1 1College of Technology, University of Bamenda, Cameroon 2Food and Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies, Cameroon Abstract Response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation conditions for the total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of black tea (Camellia sinensis). Fresh tea leaves were fermented following a rotatable central composite design of eleven experiments replicated thrice. The minimum and maximum fermentation time and temperature were respectively of 1