Eruca Sativa Oil Case Study

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3.1 Feed characteristics
The dried Eruca sativa plant had 51.5 wt% straw and 48.5 wt% seeds. The oil content of the seeds and the extraction yield were 38.4% and 81.1%, respectively. Table 1 shows characteristics of the extracted oil in which high free fatty acids content in the oil is one of the most important properties. The most dominant fatty acid was oleic acid by 61.1%, followed by linoleic and linolenic acids which are valuable unsaturated fatty acids.
In addition, carbohydrates and lignin content of the plant residues have been reported in Table 2. Glucan was the dominate carbohydrate of the residues followed by xylan. In the case of the untreated seed cake, the lignin content was as high as 36.1%.

3.2 Pretreatment
3.2.1 Eruca sativa oil pretreatment
Figure 1A shows the effects of esterification temperature and time on the FFA content of the pretreated Eruca sativa oil when a methanol to oil mass ratio of 0.4:1 was applied in the presence of 1 wt% sulfuric acid. The results showed that the reaction rate and yield were significantly influenced (See Table S1, Supporting Information) by both the reaction temperature and
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Figure 3 shows the results of FTIR spectra of the untreated and pretreated straw. The absorption band at 890 cm-1 and 1430 cm-1 are dedicated to cellulose I and II, respectively, and are used to examine the change in cellulose crystallinity [1]. The crystallinity index (CI) and total crystallinity index (TCI) were calculated as the absorbance ratio of (A1430/A898) and (A1375/A2900), respectively [2, 21], and the results were represented in Figure 4. In the case of the straw, the CI decreased from 1.07 to 0.90 after the pretreatment at 100 °C for 60 min. However, the pretreatment on the seed cake was not very effective and even using the most severe conditions, the CI and TCI just decreased by 7.1% and 5.2%,

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