Drive Reduction Theory Of Motivation

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Drive Reduction Theory :

Biological or Primary Drives :

It means that ,"the source of all behaviour lay in the satisfaction , essential for survival , of the following primary biological needs: hunger , thirst ,need for air , need to avoid injury , need to maintain an optimum temperature , need to defecate , need to urinate , need for rest , need for sleep , need for activity , and need to propagate the species." [Burns,1931, p.107] All of these are important for us in order to live properly. The motivating power of these biological needs is very strong because they are compulsory for us and if we don't complete them, we won't able to live a normal life.

A)Hunger motive:

We eat to live. The food we take is digested and nutritional substances
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These fluids are essential for our body tissues for normal functioning. When the water level in the body decreases we develop motive to drink water.
Usually, thirst motive is indicated by dryness of mouth. Experiments by psychologists have shown that just dried mouth getting wetted is not enough. We need to drink sufficient quantity of water to satiate our thirst. [Sharma, A. Types of Motives: Biological, Social and Personal Motives | Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.psychologydiscussion.net/motive/types-of-motives-biological-social-and-personal-motives-psychology/694]

C) Need for oxygen:

Our body needs oxygen continuously. We get it through continuous respiration. Oxygen is necessary for the purification of blood. We cannot survive without a regular supply of oxygen. Lack of oxygen supply may lead to serious consequences like damage to brain or death. [Sharma, A. Types of Motives: Biological, Social and Personal Motives | Psychology. Retrieved from
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Sex need is not essential for the survival of the individual, but it is essential for the survival of the species. However, fulfillment of the sex need is not like satisfying hunger or thirst. [Sharma, A. Types of Motives: Biological, Social and Personal Motives | Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.psychologydiscussion.net/motive/types-of-motives-biological-social-and-personal-motives-psychology/694 ]

Hull's Basic Formula:

Behaviour = Drive Strength X Habit Strength
[Burns,1931,p.108]

Secondary or Social Drives:

It means that "reinforcement through the reduction of a primary drive is, however, only the beginning of motivation.It gives way to reinforcement through the reduction of secondary drives, which are learned by the processes of stimulus generalization and stimulus substitution. "[Burns,1931,p.108] An example will be baby's hunger

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