That is, the higher the temperature of the solvent (water), the more solute (salt) that will dissolve in it. In this experiment, we will study the solubility of potassium nitrate (KNO3) in water. You will dissolve different quantities of this salt in a given amount of water at a temperature close
Direction of thermal energy flow: 1.3 . Equilibrium States: When two regions are at the same temperature, no transfer of thermal energy takes place; this is called (Thermal Equilibrium). Thermal energy flows from the region of higher temperature to the region of lower temperature. Transfer of power in the form of temperature process heat, because whenever continued heat transfer energy from one object to another, the molecules that sucks the heat in the body speed will increase, and therefore the kinetic energy of the body increases. It is known that the greater the kinetic energy of the body temperature increases.
Taking tack first, tackifiers are added to adhesive formulas to increase the tack. They have low-molecular weight & a high glass transition temperature (Tg). (Temperature area through which the polymer changes from a glassy state into a fluid state is known as the glass transition temperature). This low-molecular weight and high glass transition temperature provides the adhesive with the required viscoelastic properties, i.e. increased tack.
The mobile phase and stationary phase in the HPLC will involve in the mechanism. The stationary phase in HPLC normally will be the silica gel. The silica gel will help to separate the components in the liquid sample as its particle size, surface properties and pore structure will lead to good separation results of solvent by minimize the length of diffusion path. The silica gel is also inert to most solvent so it can separate various type of chemical compound with high reproducibility. During the separation, the component in sample will interact with the adsorbent material within the pores of the stationary phase.
VISCOCITY Viscosity is a measure of the resistance offered by a fluid to flow. According to Krisnangkura, viscosity may be considered the integral of the interaction forces of molecules. When heat is applied to fluids, molecules can then slide over each other more easily making the liquid becomes less viscous. The effect of temperature on the kinematic viscosity
Employing the thermodynamic principle, the number of molecules departing a unit area of evaporant per second, or flux F, is given by: Equation 7 Where is a slowly variable function of the temperature (T) and is the activation energy (in eV) needed to evaporate cone molecule of the material. The activation energy for evaporation is associated with the enthalpy of the formation of the evaporant, H,
When the volume of the container enclosing the gas is reduced, there are more gas particles per unit volume. The gas particles collide with each other and the wall of container with higher frequency and this will exert a higher pressure. The kinetic energy remains the same and temperature remains constant. Charles’ Law ( Law of Volume ) reveals that when pressure is kept constant, the volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas in kelvin. Relating this back to molar volume, the higher the temperature, the higher the volume the gas occupies.
When the chromatography paper is placed in the solvent, the solvent penetrates the paper by capillary action. Capillary action is the movement of liquid within the spaces of the material, due to adhesion, cohesion and surface tension. The adhesive intermolecular forces between the liquid and solid are stronger than the cohesive intermolecular forces in the liquid. Solubility also affects the chromatographic results as, the more soluble the pigment is the further it will travel up the chromatograph paper. Another affecting factor is the molecular weight, the substances with a smaller molecular weight will travel higher up the paper.
Desiccant being liquid, absorbs the heat of absorption. This causes the temperature of the desiccant to rise. Unsaturated desiccant solution is then pumped to regenerator where, desiccant solution is saturated by means of external heat. This is an example of typical adiabatic desiccant dehumidification cycle. Dehumidification capacity of desiccant can be increased if desiccant solution is maintained in the absorber at low temperature.