The idea behind these program was to help treat the offenders for their substance abuse disorders while still holding them accountable for the crime that they had committed (Lutze & Wormer, 2013). Many studies have been conducted in order to assess the effectiveness of drug court programs across the country. In a qualitative study done by Gallagher 100 participants of the drug court program were examined. This study found that of the drug court participants, seventy-nine percent were not rearrested in the follow-up period. Twenty-one percent of those participants were rearrested (Gallagher, 2014).
Data from The Sentencing Project shows that “African Americans use drugs at a 9.7% rate. This is considerably higher compared to 8.1% for whites and 7.6% for Hispanics” (King., Mauer, p.18, 2007). This is one of the reasons why African Americans are a primary target when it comes to drug policies and sentencing laws. This makes this group more inclined to be arrested compared to other races. Especially because, “African Americans make up 14% of the nation’s monthly drug users, they also represent 37% of individuals arrested for a drug offense, and 56% represent individuals in state prison for a drug conviction” (King., Mauer, p.20, 2007).
Founded in the BJS 2006 report (Bureau of Justice Statistics), “Twenty-eight percent received illegal income, 40% were more likely to have a general physical medical condition and 30% more likely to have multiple medical problems.” They are also twice more likely to have been homeless prior to incarceration than the general prison population according to the BJS report (Glaze & James, 2006). While prior family and living history is a major factor on why the mentally ill get incarcerated it is important to look as the offenses they are most likely to commit. Forty-eight percent of mentally ill inmates are charged with drug-trafficking-related crimes (Sarteschi, 2013). Majority of mentally ill offenders are imprisoned on their second or third offense — approximately one-third of inmates report having three to ten prior incarcerations. The mentally ill are also incarcerated for as many as five months longer than those without mental illness (Glaze & James,
The War on Drugs also contributed massively to high incarceration rates. New York, who has mostly ended their War on Drugs, have seen incarceration numbers plummet. In Oklahoma however, drug offenders share about 30 percent of their prison population. Ending the War on Drugs will not end mass incarceration alone. The federal government and a handful of states have successfully reduced their incarcerated populations by reforming their drug policies, and these can also work with other policies as
However, two drugs that are very similar but yet very different are crack cocaine and powder cocaine. These two drugs are essentially based on the same chemical composition, but one is far more dangerous than the other. In order to comprehend why crack cocaine is more dangerous than powder cocaine we must first understand the history of these drugs, and the detrimental effects they have on the human body. First we will discuss the drug benzoylmethylecgonine, better known by its street name of coke. “Cocaine is a purified extracted from the
What are your thoughts about the prison system? Today 's prisons are so bad that prisons in the United States hold 5 percent of the US population. Many people get sent to jail cause of the 3 law strike because a lot of minorities are caught with drugs. Plus the government is wasting 75 billion dollars on these facilities instead of using the money in a better way like making programs for the prisoners that need help with mental health or other stuff. The first step is for a better State and Federal Representation in the Government.
One theory that can explain the topic of Mass Incarceration is that people are being sent to jail more and more for a longer period of time. Also, there is an obvious and high rate imprisonment within the community of color. For many years we have been told that the number one reason for increasing rates of incarceration is due to the war on drugs but in recent years we are learning through statistics that it not just drugs. Legislating has passed many new and tougher sentencing laws over the past 35 years. To explain prison growth, in state prisons 90 percent of prisoners only about 17 percent of incarcerated are due to drug offenses.
It is the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs (World Health Organization). Normally, one would think this issue doesn’t matter since each and every person has his or her own guilty pleasure. However, estimates of total overall costs of substance abuse exceed $600 billion annually, including productivity and health/crime related costs (National Institute on Drug Abuse). As said earlier, substances include alcohol and illicit drugs. Alcohol abuse is very serious, causing of 3.3 million deaths each year.
Mandatory minimums and lack of parole are also a large reason on why prisons are overcrowded (“Criminal Justice Facts.” The Sentencing Project). Since 1980, the number of inmates incarcerated for drug offenses has increased drastically. In 1980, there were 40,900 people in jail for drug offenses and in 2015, there are over 469,545 offenses. Today in U.S. prisons there are more inmates behind bars for drug offense chargers than there are the prisoners in jail for any type of crime in 1980 (“Criminal Justice Facts.” The Sentencing Project). We have inmates with drug offenses serving longer sentences than those who had more serious crimes like sexual assault, or robbery or sometimes even manslaughter.
For example, in the case of cocaine, as the brain is adapted in the presence of the specific drug, brain regions responsible for judgment, decision-making, learning, and memory begin to physically change, making certain behaviors “hard-wired.” In some brain regions, connections between neurons are pruned back. In others, neurons form more connections. (Martin, 2000) These brain changes can be long-lasting and can lead to the harmful behaviors seen in people who abuse drugs. Adolescents drug abuse coexist with other mental disorders, such as attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, affective disorders,
It elaborates further on the concept of “jail diversion” explaining a program in Bexar County Texas that is having success in doing just that as well as helping mentally ill lead better more successful lives. The author states that there is a high percentage of homeless mentally ill in jails and too much is expected of law enforcement and the criminal justice system in regards to mental health care. This is corroborated in the readings of Slate et al. (2013) as police officers are described as “street corner psychiatrists” and “providers of “psychiatric first aid”. The author also describes the growing pressures on emergency rooms to treat mentally ill who are over twice as likely to be admitted to the hospital than those with other
Alcohol Misuse Among Underage Drinkers Alcohol consumption among underage drinkers is major issue within society as it can contribute to both health and social problems (Komro, Maldonado-Molina, Tobler, Bonds, and Muller 2007). Problems can include: criminal offenses, injuries, increased risk of disease, unintentional sexual behaviour and suicide. Underage drinking refers to individuals consuming alcohol when under the legal age within their country. Individuals under legal drinking age are at a period of brain development that is particularly sensitive to the effects of alcohol (Komro et al., 2007). This essay critically evaluates fake identification, family conflict and peer pressure, however, it will be argued that access significantly
Those in the diversion program had recidivism rates as low as 36%; this compares to the group who were given jail time with a recidivism rate of 54% (Parsons, Wei, Henrichson, Drucker, & Trone, 2015). In terms of public safety, only 3% of individuals who were involved in treatment programs committed violent crimes after treatment; this number doubles for those who were sentenced to jail and prisons. New York has made the necessary changes to start viewing The War on Drugs and its influence on Mass Incarceration as not only a criminal justice issue but also now a mental health and public health problem. From the beginning, stakeholders saw the flaws and have spent about 36 years working out the issues. The reform is a good stepping stone toward a more just system, but just as the original Rockefeller drug Laws had their issues, the new reforms will have issues that will be worked out through the years to