The breakthroughs included within the piece impacted not only the understanding of medicine in the pre Islamic civilization but also today. Overall, Avicenna’s first correct explanation of the arterial pulse and the discovery of heart palpitations contributed to the development of cardiology and further advancements in
Hippocrates is accredited with changing the way medicine was viewed and used healing plants as part of his “Hippocratic Theory.” (Falsetto, 2009) He believed strongly in the medicinal benefit of fumigation with aromatics and used fumigation in the city of Athens to combat the plague. He also prescribed aromatic treatments for fallen soldiers on the battlefields. (History of Essential Oils, 2017)
What is unique about Gootenberg’s book is that it represents one of the first and most accurate archival-based work on the influence of cocaine based on various academic sources as well as primary materials such as medical journals, drug agency reports and Amazonian land records. The objectivity of the story that is told could be found in the several different points of view the author provides to the reader: apart from his own personal opinion rarely noticeable when reading the book, Andean Cocaine is a story told not only by looking at a global perspective, but it is also focused on the local context on how cocaine has influenced the Andean region. Many parts of the book, in fact, make reference to how the coca plant was essentially used by indigenous tribes specifically for medicinal and ritualistic purposes before its marketisation in the Western
Hippocrates is very significant to the history of medicine because he changed medicine, influenced physicians for centuries, and developed a system useful for curing illness. His works and ideas changed medicine from relying on religion and home remedies to reasoning and observation. He is known as the father of medicine and is recognized today as an important figure in medicine. Hippocrates changed the way people thought and used medicine. Rather than using religion to explain why someone was sick or why epidemics occurred he used rational explanations.
According to Chapter 23 Ritual Enemas, “…the ritual importance of the intoxicating enema is highlighted by the involvement in the rite of one of the greatest underworld deities, a lord associated with earth, water, and agricultural fertility…Yucatecan god Pauchatun…” (Furst and Coe 208). When enemas were introduced in the New World they were used for medical purposes like reliving
“Shamanism is the philosophy and practice of healing in which the diagnosis or treatment is based on trance like states, either on the part of the healer or the patient” ( Levinthal, 2012, p.52). The people known as a Shaman have knowledge about the plants exhibiting healing powers relating to the medical treatment of disease and other conditions. The Egyptians knew a lot about the human body and various diseases in so much that a book about medicine called the Ebers Papyrus is written “an Egyptian document dated approximately 1500 B.C., containing more than 800 prescriptions for common ailments and diseases” (Levinthal, 2012, p.52). In it is details and knowledge about the human body structure and the job of the heart and blood vessels. The Papyrus has lots of prescriptions showing the treatment of many disorders by animal, plant, and mineral toxins that still occur today in addition to medical spells, treatments, surgeries, and disease that afflicted the ancient
The Hippocratic Oath is one of the oldest, most misinterpreted, documents in history. The goal of the oath is to treat the ill to the best of one’s abilities, to protect the privacy of the patient, to pass on the secrets of medicine to the next generations, and more ("Medical Definition of Hippocratic Oath"). This is usually taken by those beginning their medical practices and is still used today. It was written by Hippocrates, who was one of the greatest physicians, in the late fifth century (Walton and Kerridge). Since the Hippocratic Oath is interpreted in different ways, many suggest that it supports euthanasia.
Therefore, they revoked it. There are still Alchemists around the world today but it is not as common as it was during the Renaissance. “Alchemy, astrology, and magic were considered, during the Renaissance, not to be a superstition but a logical system that helped them gain understanding of life and the universe”
Growth and development was seen in bacteriology, medicine, anesthesia, surgery, ophthalmology, and psychotherapy to name a few fields (Syed, 2002, pg 3). There are several Muslim individuals famous for their strides in the medical world including Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya ar-Razi and Az-Zahrawi (Falagas, Zarkadoulia,& Samonis 2006, pg 1583). Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya ar-Razi is perhaps most famous for his medical encyclopedia, Al-Hawi, which had 30 volumes (2006, pg 1583). However, he also investigated psychosomatic reactions, described the recurrent nerve, differentiated measles from smallpox and much more (2006, pg 1583). Az-Zahrawi is often called the “father of surgery” due to his extensive work in that field (2006, pg 1583).
The custom of drinking tea has inherently been identified as the representation of British culture in the modern-day. The popularity of this tradition among the British cannot be separated from the fact that tea had been commercialized by the East India Company in the 18th century. Tea had been transformed from its state of being a luxury good into a major commodity through the trade of the British Empire in Asia. Another significant commodity that had been exchanged along with tea in this trading system was opium. The strong interplay between tea and opium trade in Asia illustrated how the British built an empire in the region by asserting its influence gradually through trade.
Another important person in medical history; Avicenna. Avicenna made very crucial discoveries Discoveries like, the nature of the pulse, and the phthisis contagious nature, as well as tuberculosis and its contagious nature. He recorded the spread of disease by water, an example of Written Records. Avicenna, like Al-Razi, wrote a book, The Canon of Medicine. This book was over a million words long, and was and still is a massive contribution to medical history.
The Islamic doctors learned how to treat the ill and then wrote their findings down in books. Some of this books included "a medical reference encyclopedia, the Comprehensive Book and Treatise on Smallpox and Measles" by al-Razi. Another medical book was written by Ibn Sina, he wrote the "five-volume The Canon of Medicine" (Document
The Main Scientific Breakthrough for which the Pioneer is Remembered (e.g. new drug or drug class, new mechanism of drug action, etc) Howard Florey is remembered for the development of Penicillin into a useful treatment, which was one of the greatest breakthroughs in the antibiotic era. Diseases that Became Treatable Following the Breakthrough (main health condition affected by the discovery) The main type of diseases that penicillin treats are bacterial based diseases/illnesses such as pneumonia, syphilis, scarlet fever and strep throat to name a few. How the Discovery Changed Clinical Practice (i.e. duration of illness decreased, treated as outpatients versus inpatients, etc) This discovery enabled doctors to treat patients more efficiently and proved to be a miracle drug as it was able to treat illnesses that previously had poor or no available treatments.
The Moral Effects of Widely Used Pharmaceuticals, talks about how drugs affect human moral behaviors. In the research article, are You Morally Modified? The Moral Effects of Widely Used Pharmaceuticals, this paper was written by Neil Levy, Thomas Douglas, Guy Kahane, Sylvia Terbeck, Philip Cowen, Miles Hewstone, and Julian Savulescu. Each of those author has expanded backgrounds for example, Neil Levy has published six books, his research focused on
He also proposed the idea that illness could be caused by diet, lifestyle, or the environment. The Greeks, like the Egyptians still believed in their gods. When the idea of the elements was created, Greek doctors thought that ailments were caused by natural means and would thus best be treated naturally versus the old spells and