For instance, the Justice Department may direct that prosecutors should always aim to obtain at least the minimum prison sentence, when pursuing drug related cases. The Obama administration abstained from using this prerogative, as it causes a strain on the budget in the long run. Trump also took part in paying lip service on the drug problem, which is a serious public health issue. He stressed that he would expand treatment options in the future, although this statement goes against his repulsion of the Affordable Care Act.
The purpose of Needle Exchange programs are to reduce the increasing number of infections such as HIV and Hepatitis C among individuals by providing clean needles and syringes to drug users who inject themselves. These government funded programs supply free clean needles to drug addicts so that they are at a lower risk of sharing needles and spreading diseases. There are many supporters for Needle Exchange programs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016), state “syringe service programs are an effective component of a comprehensive, integrated approach to HIV prevention among people who inject drugs”. Additional support comes from Allen, Ruiz, Jones, & Turner (2016).
The effects of alcohols on membrane have also been researched quite extensively. Previous studies have found that alcohols disrupt the structure of cell membranes (Goldstein, 1986). They have also found that ethanol has a stronger effect than other alcohols (Patra et al, 2005). From this research and literature the expected results of the experiment were to see an increase in membrane permeability, this result was observed. The study provides a brief insight into what kind of effects alcohol can have on cell membranes but it is limited.
To be able to encourage society to use generic drugs, the act was believed to allow generic drug companies to expedite the FDA approval process so that their products were able to go to the market as soon as brand name products for patents expired. Generic designers “may file an abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) that incorporates the safety/effectiveness data submitted by original pioneer drug manufacture and adds only bioequivalence studies”. It is hard to say if the Hatch-Waxman has improved “pharmaceutical innovation” however, the approval and marketing process for generic drugs has helped people significantly. There was an increase in ANDA applications during 1998 and there has been a “high success rate for patent invalidation”. “Since Hatch-Waxman, virtually all top-selling drugs not covered by patent face generic competition; whereas pre–Hatch-Waxman, only 35% had generics available.
The pharmacy list provided for review revealed that the last Butrans patch was approved on 09/11/15 and last Norco was approved on 05/02/15, however, the latest progress report contradicts this report. Current treatment regiment of the patient is unclear from the reports. Medical necessity of Norco 10/325 mg #60 has not been substantiated. Recommend non-certification. Non-certification here does not imply abrupt cessation for a patient who may be at risk for withdrawal symptoms.
(Kennedy’s Wars, 328-329) But in 1963 Kennedy saw major improvement by the South Vietnam Army, enough to start pulling American military advisors out of Vietnam, which was estimated to be a total of 1,000 advisors. (Kennedy’s Wars, 357) But as time went on the Viet Cong grew stronger and Diem was becoming uncooperative with Kennedy and Congress altogether. Washington saw him as beyond repair and wanted him out of the presidency.
To the west was Von Zangen’s 15th Army, to the east was Student’s 1st Parachute Army, and in the south at the Siegfried line was Brandenberger’s 7th Army. Model requested for reinforcements, but Germany have no available soldiers, so they conscripted young and old men. Model also ordered the 2nd SS Panzer Corps to retreat towards Arnhem to rest and refit. (Appendix D)
When an individual watch someone else get hurt or even experience their own pain, they gain posteriori knowledge of something harmful. When comparing the two types, posteriori knowledge appears to more reliable than priori knowledge. Unlike the priori knowledge with its ambiguous origin, posteriori knowledge is testable through multiple exposure. Plato, however, disagrees. He states that not only is priori knowledge the true type of knowledge, but that posteriori knowledge is just a false opinion.
PROS OF MEDICAL MARIJUANA Not too long ago, the United States Congress considered marijuana to have no acceptable medical use and consequent upon this fact, marijuana was placed in Schedule 1 of the Controlled Substances Act. Fast-forward some 48 years later, 29 of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of marijuana, albeit for medicinal purposes. This is similar trajectory in many countries around the world too. Once considered a harmful substance, research, new science, and irrefutable evidence has proven otherwise, making states and governments adopt its usage in many countries worldwide.
Even President Trump recently declared the opioid crisis a public health emergency. President Trump’s commission made recommendations to fight the addiction epidemic. The panel suggested creating more drug courts and expanding access to medications that treat addiction. (Hoffman) My family has seen first had what the addition of pain medication can do.
Moreover, the rhetorical appeal, pathos, seen on this website increases its validity. Rhetorical appeals are persuasive strategies used to make readers consume textual content in three various ways. For example, the site features drug rehab success stories that focus on the struggles drug abusers went through to recover from their addiction on their Why Gateway page. This use of pathos makes readers’ emotions fly and prone to trust their work.
In reference to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, “Krabbe Disease is a rare, inherited degenerative disease” (NINDS.nih.gov). It is diagnosed when a presence of globoid cells is found. Those are cells with more than one nucleus. A nucleus acts as the brain of the cell where all the action happens. This disease breaks down the coating of nerve fibers or axons, those are called Myelin Sheath.
This became a problem as the law was now being enforced after being disregarded for so long. As a result, a government inquiry was made to examine the issues surrounding cannabis to try to find a solution. The Le Dain commission that began in 1969, set out to do extensive research regarding the consumption of cannabis. They consulted experts, doctors and the general public to gather information and opinions. They concluded their inquiry in 1972, with the recommendations of removing the penalties for the possession of cannabis; however, their conclusion was largely rejected by the federal government and the consumption of cannabis continued to be illegal regardless of whether it was for recreational or medicinal
The history of needle exchange programs originated from Europe in the early 1980s, and later immigrated to the North East side of the United States. Jon Parker, who was a former IV drug user, started the U.S’s first illegal NEP. “There were many oppositions toward NEP’s which prohibited federal funding until there was proved research that it will reduce HIV, while not increasing drug use” (Des Jarlais, 2006). This led to the extensive development of NEP’s due to lack of funding and an vast spread of HIV “During this opposition and denial of funding “4,400- 9,700 avoidable HIV infection occurred” (Heimer, 1998). The first legal NEP in the United States opened in Washington State in 1988 (Des Jarlais), this program had support from Pierce COunty Health Department.