In addition to physical health, there is a concern for increased inmate misconduct and violence in overcrowded prisons. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted to examine the effects of crowding on humans in general. These studies have shown that overcrowding can result in increased stress, pathological behavior, cognitive decline, and social withdrawal (7). Outside of prison walls, these effects can be easily controlled by perceived cooperation among those who share living space, social support and self-control. On the other hand, the situation of overcrowding is extremely different for those who are incarcerated.
Solitary confinement not only fails to rehabilitate but often times causes extensive damage to the minds of the incarcerated. It is no secret that solitary confinement has adverse effects on prisoners and can lead to mental breakdowns as well as suicide. In an article by Alayna Demartini titled “Long Terms in Solitary Can Warp Minds, Critics Say” guest speaker and director of the Human Rights Watch, Jamie Fellner asserts that “Leaving inmates alone for days with little or no outside contact can be harmful to their psychological health”(Demartini 3). The inmates that are the worst damaged are those who enter solitary with an existing low mental health as well as juveniles are at high risk of psychological damage. Not only is this method not effective but prisons across the states are making prisoners spend months at a time inside solitary confinement.
While Dwayne Betts was incarcerated he suffered from many unpleasant experiences. The main things people experience in prison are: prisonization, the pains of imprisonment, total institution, and degradation ceremonies. Prisonization is basically how new inmates adapt to the norms, routine and culture of prison. Prisons are a microcosm of society with their own rules both formal and informal (norms). There is also a different set of values than on the outside.
Adjustment to advanced imprisonment demands particular mental costs of incarcerated persons; few individuals are more vulnerable to the pains of imprisonment than others. The mental costs and torments of incarceration can service to impede post-prison modification; and that
The likelihood for violent inmates to commit another violent acts is high while being lock up to release his or her frustration. The possibility of being searches therefore provide a hinder for inmates to possess makeshift weapon. Searches will also hinder the possession of illegal contrabands by inmates. The use of pat searches and x-ray are to keep the
Similarly, other possible drug-related crimes, such as theft, burglary and robbery, are all extremely serious offences which carry severe penalties. However, the imposition of punitive penalties fails to adequately respond to drug-related crime. This is because punitive measures fail to address the complex nature and causes underlying the commission of drug-related offences. It has been found that after release from prison, without accessible, integrated and consistent drug treatment and support such as access to housing and employment, people with substance use issues are at higher risk of re-offending and returning to prison, or dying from a drug overdose. A number of measures have been introduced which focus on addressing the factors underlying the commission of drug-related offences (ie PDDP, IDCD) which ultimately provides for early interventions prior to the formation of entrenched attitudes.
Aspects such as anonymization, loss of identity, establishment of roles and authoritative hierarchies, dependency relationships, emasculation, and arbitrary control may all have a part to play in creating the hostile environments in prisons. This experiment has implications in the regulation of prisons and in achieving humane treatment of prisoners and reducing recidivism rates for criminals. It opened up new topics for exploration within the area of social
This takes away many of their rights for example there right of freedom and liberty. As a prisoner you do have some human rights for example right to a safe shelter, right to food and water. This form of punishment is damaging to the offender as it can cause psychological problems. In some cases it can be a form of mental torture to offenders, if they are claustrophobic. There are other effects imprisonment has on an offender, for example mental illness, suicidal, isolation, the fear of being attacked or preyed upon, also the low self-worth one has.
However, drug abuse often stems from psychological factors such as stress, childhood trauma, abandonment issues and several others. Another opposing view is that prison provides stability for drug addicts but prison conforms addicts to the lifestyle of a prisoner. Prisoners are given no freewill and in the real world there will always be choices to be made. In conclusion, research has proven that treatment outside prison has been effective “Research emerged indicating that substance abuse treatment was in fact effective at reducing drug use and drug-related crimes”. “In a sample of 245 program participants and 137 comparison offenders, the average number of rearrests for treatment participants was substantially lower than that of comparison
Furthermore, there can be several factors at play when a wrongful conviction occurs and each case is unique. Three of the more common and detrimental factors that will be explored in this essay are eyewitness error, the use of jailhouse informants and professional and institutional misconduct. Firstly, eyewitness testimony can be a major contributor to a conviction and is an important factor in wrongful conviction (Campbell & Denov, 2016, p. 227). Witness recall and, frankly, the human emory are not as reliable as previously thought. In fact there has been much research showing the problems with eyewitness testimony such as suggestive police interviewing, unconscious transference, and malleability of confidence (Campbell & Denov, 2016, p.227).