No matter what society claims is an ideal job, place to live, way to look, or successful level of merit, people can find purpose in roles completely opposite from what society suggests. One social standard is
Theoretically, the veil of ignorance would be an effective way to eliminate all personal bias. Still, because humans are human, it is fundamentally impossible to eliminate all parochial interests, as Sen calls them. Sen references Adam Smith’s theory of an impartial spectator. Smith, an influential philosopher and economist, suggest that when decisions regarding social justice need to be made, they should be made by an objective outsider who would be unaffected by the decision. This outsider, the impartial spectator, would
A main assumption of the conflict perspective is that human beings are inherently selfish and uncooperative. Additionally, Marxism creates the ability to predict the general course of development within the economy and society the theory demonstrates the superiority of foresight over astonishment. Another strength identified with Marxism is that it explains why there is such an uneven distribution of power and wealth between social classes (bourgeoisie & proletariat). Another one of the major strengths of Marxism as Marx believed, there should be equality of the law and societal services, where everyone has an equal stance and opportunity with no dominance. This means that every person would be able to get access to the most important things he needs regardless of whatever he does, wherever he lives or how much he makes to provide a better living for those depending on him.
In the Division of Labor in Society, Emile Durkheim determines how societies form social cohesion. Durkheim finds that social cohesion works differently in “traditional”, otherwise primitive, and modern societies. To better explain this, Durkheim turns to a concrete source of morals or rules that is found in all societies: law. Durkheim notes that one the differences of traditional and modern societies is that they differ in their types of law, repressive or penal law and restoratory or civil law. Durkheim argues that these sources are inherently different from each other and are characteristic of the types of societies that they belong to.
Distributive justice exists in a society where there exists no inequality, so the Indian constitution through these articles tries to remove the prevailing inequalities in the society. Under Article 38 the State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people and develop a social order empowered to bestow upon distributive justice in the form of social, economic and political justice. So, basically Distributive Justice is concerned with the welfare of the masses. There exists inequality in all spheres of life be it education, health, equality of opportunity, availability of services or any other field. Poverty is also one of the most extrinsic evidence of Inequality that is most evident in our Indian
DEFINITION The Social Science Dictionary defines “Robert K Merton’s theory of anomie” as a theory of deviance which holds that many forms of deviance are caused by a disjunction between society’s goals and the approved means to achieve these goals that they set out for themselves. Anomie causes society to become less of a community of caring people who look after each other’s interests and more individualistic. Anomie causes individuals to look out for themselves rather than the community. Social conditions bring uneven pressure to bear on people of different classes, and people react as individuals to such conditions. The pressure or strain will cause
Some labour power is better than none at all. Being such a straightforward theory and highlighting the exploitation of workers as the worst injustice Marx’s exploitation theory neglects those who are worse off under capitalism. There is a deeper injustice underlying exploitation. Those who are protected from exploitation, yet suffer a deeper injustice. Disenfranchised women, the unemployed and wage-workers all suffer from this injustice (Kymlicka 2002: 181).
According to Marx, the members of society will necessarily have some perception of their similarity and common interest which Marx termed as the ‘Class-consciousness. Class consciousness is not simply an attentiveness of one's own class interest i.e. the maximization of profit and ownership rights; or, the maximization of the wage with the minimization of the working day, but it also embodies deeply shared views of how society should be organized legally, socially, politically and culturally. Max Weber however critiqued historical materialism, observing that stratification is not based purely on economic inequalities but on other status and power differentials. Social class pertaining largely to quantifiable wealth may be distinguished from
In Marxism it is viewed as as a class struggle and it is also seen as the formation which consists of various classes.But one thing which is not to be forgotten is that in both the theories state is regarded as political unit which has power in its hand. The term citizenship includes various key factors which is to be dealt by the state .It includes social inequality,injustice , status, privilege, cooperation and integration. Citizenship is the one which gives us identity and nationality to get the benefits of the country.Sometimes ,the way to get benefits are closed. And also citizenship is the only means to identify oneself with the state , to acquire status , to enjoy the benefits and privileges of the state, to question the state for the rights and justice. As a whole citizenship is associated with rights and obligations.