It has also shown light on the differences and issues triggered between the wealthy and the poor in society. The wealthy is classified as the persons who owned large portions of land and industries: hence, they control sources of revenue, employment and the lower working class in general. Marx sought to understand the reason behind the popularity of poverty when there is an abundance of riches. He came to a conclusion that the reason was capitalism. Capitalism is an economic system where the means of production is owned by private individuals.
Introduction Great thinkers, including Plato and Aristotle opened the doors to studying society; they based their thoughts on creating an “ideal society”. The science of Sociology was later developed in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte, who coined the word “Sociology”. He began to study society, using “critical thinking”. Comte believed that only by really understanding society could we begin to change it. In this Essay I will compare and contrast two major theoretical perspectives in Sociology.
Since the 17th century, people all over the world have been trying to figure out how society works and the ways in which people are influenced by their society. Traditionally, these questions were answered using superstition and myth (Henslin, 4). The “founding fathers” of sociology -Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber- all broke apart from the traditional ways of thinking and developed their own worldviews. Auguste Comte first coined the term “sociology,” or the process of applying the scientific method in order to discover social laws. He used “positivism,” in which the scientific method is used in the social world, rather than the typical superstition and tradition.
Any common dictionary would state that Philosophy is, “knowledge of nature or reality.” Changes during the Gilded Age would continue off achievements made alongside science. Theories of evolution and the introduction to Darwinism did not just have established a grip on scientific communities, but also philosophical communities as well. A great example would be to analyze the writings of Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin not only brought forth a theory of evolution to attempt to debunk Creationism, but he also delivered his theory of “Natural Selection.” It formed an ideology that only that best will survive or simply survival of the fittest. In fact, “Many social Darwinists stress competition between individuals in laissez-faire (hands-off) capitalism.” This spirit of Social Darwinism would continue its impact on Philosophy far past the reach of simple nature or reality.
“The reason we have classes is due to a group sharing a common interest and economic position” (McIntosh, 1997:133). Class is determined on possession of wealth; together with the occupation are the principal bases for class difference. The main classes in Western societies are the upper class who was the wealthy, employers and factory owner, the middle class who were white collar workers and professionals and the lower class who were the ones in the blue-collar or manual jobs. In the developed countries there was also a fourth class, the peasants who were occupied in traditional types of agricultural production. The most well-known and important theories of class are those developed by Karl Marx and Max Weber.
“… capitalists can only make their profits if workers show up to work every day, and if they refuse to play along, the profits dry up overnight.” (Chibber) Like they say money talks and, consequently, when money does talk a lot of people listen especially when it boils down to your survival. Things of this nature, especially in first world countries, this makes factories want to run to third world countries where the labor is cheap, they are not required to create safe working conditions, and these people do not actually have an abundance of job options. In these places, the people are not protected from their employers, unlike first world countries. So, in reality, the first world working class rebelling makes conditions worse for other people all over the globe a noteworthy example is the girls in Malaysia that I talked about in discussion 4. For example, many third world countries do not use clocks to keep track of work.
Émile Durkheim is widely considered to be one of the founders of the science of sociology. Towards the end of his book, The Rules of Sociological Method, he writes that “a science cannot be considered definitively constituted until it has succeeded in establishing its own independent status” (150), a statement that strongly suggests that with this work Durkheim is trying to “definitively constitute” (150) sociology as a science. Contrary to this sentiment, Durkheim appears to rely on already established sciences and scientific methods. Though he is definitely founding something new, Durkheim fundamentally relies on the methods of traditional science to give sociology credibility within the scientific community and beyond. One of the most
Structural theory and Social Action Structural theory implies that the structures of society are the most important influences upon the individuals in that society. Marx assumed that there were two main classes, i.e. the capitalists and the proletariat. Individuals belonging to the proletariat have relatively little freedom of choice and materialistic considerations dominate how society is formed. Karl Marx predicted that the rich would become richer and the poor would become poorer.
Durkheim Durkheim propagates a study of society using methodology similar to that of physical natural sciences like physics and biology etc. Although he distinguishes sociology from other sciences like physics, chemistry or pathology, an calls it as the “science of association”, but emphasizes on the requirement to approach the subject matter of sociology in same manner as it is done in scientific domains like physics, chemistry or pathology. Furthermore, Durkheim distinguishes sociology also from other domains like Psychology and Philosophy. He says that sociology is concerned with the study or observation of external factors which are independent of actor and Psychology is concerned with psychological facts which are internal to individual. He distinguishes sociology from Philosophy by emphasizing on empirical nature of sociology.
The bourgeoisie are the owners of means of production such as factories and other businesses. He believed that the wealth of the bourgeoisie depend on the work that the proletariat carried out, meaning that without the proletariats there won’t be wealth for the bourgeoisies. Marx refers to proletariats as laborers who do not get any piece of what they produce rather they are obliged to give everything they produce to the capitalist, the bourgeoisies. Both Weber and Marx believe that stratification results to inequality in a way that the rich will forever remain rich and the poor will remain poor. (Marx&
Moreover, the outcome of the relativism of the faith was the relativism of behavior. When rock solid mores, moral absolutes, give way to relativism, you end up with twentieth-century situation ethics, where morality is dictated by the situation and the subject. Also out of relativism came twentieth-century world-come-of age theology, where the secularity of the world is celebrated. University professors can debate whether relativism is relative, but when wrong becomes right people become confused and disillusioned. 6 One the greatest contributor to secularism was Darwin and his theory of evolution.