Voltaire (1694-1778) was a French writer, historian and prominent philosophical figure whose ideas and writings left a mark on history. During his time, Voltaire’s theories sparked great controversy. In Voltaire’s best-known work Candide, he criticizes philosophical, religious, political, and social systems of the time which today we would unknowingly turn a blind eye to. Knowing the historical context of Candide, the reader’s understanding and interpretation of characters and ideas in it enhance the work by connecting them to the voices of history present in Voltaire’s time. For starters, the reader must be aware of historical events that had occurred and were occurring to understand the historical context of Candide.
Fiction holds great value in the study of Colonial Nigeria, because not only is it accurate in portraying historical events, it provokes an emotional response in relation to these events and the vital truth of Colonial Nigeria. Through the way that The Headstrong Historian portrays the topic of assimilation and the creation of the “Nigerian middle-class”, we are shown the historical accuracy of The Headstrong Historian. The British assimilated many Nigerians through education. Because of the many benefits to be gained from a European education, by the late 19th century, more and more Nigerians were taking
Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim are considered to be among the historical sociologists that the world has ever had. Notably, sociology covers the study of human social lifestyle, societies, as well as groups and it is through this research that one can comprehend the dynamics and the structures of a certain community ( Last 88) . These two scholars came up with ideas that have shaped the interpreting of the social structure in various ways in several modern societies. However, their works became very complex and hard to understand, but this was not intended they intentions were to separate sociology to become a particular field of study ( Emirbayer 10) . The essay provides a glimpse into Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim’s notions, and it also presents the similarities as well as the differences in their works.
Warren Hastings, the first Governor General of India, had set the tone of British administration in India. He was a colonialist, conqueror and an administrator; but unlike past conquerors, Hastings belonged to an intellectually vivacious generation. He and some of his colleagues like William Jones and Nathaniel Halhed were part of the British Enlightenment led by men like Samuel Johnson (whom Hastings knew intimately), Benjamin Franklin, Adam Smith, David Hume and others. The ideas of this period of 18th century Britain, the advent of scientific thought, the challenge to religious dogma and the celebration of reason above faith would change not just Europe but ultimately the entire world. It was these men of the British Enlightenment who first came to rule India.
Compare and contrast Weber and Marx’s views about the evolution of society, and say which if any best describe contemporary Caribbean society. As I ponder on the contributions made by these two great men Max weber and Karl Marx I am left overwhelmed. Flabbergasted by the wealth of knowledge they possessed and the contributions they made towards our understanding of the society we live in. They emphasized on various ideas and perceptions about the environment that is still relevant centuries later. Although the great saying says, “great minds think alike,” but great minds can share some differences too.
For instance, who uses power or where is power located are two of the main concerns of conflict theory. In fact, Coser, himself says power is not a bad thing but it is a factor that helps shape relations within a society. In his theory, Coser tries bringing out the meaning of conflict in a society; how a conflict starts in a society; how unequal distribution of power within a society leads to conflict and the consequences that it brings along. Coser drew most of his theories from Georg Simmel, rather than drawing his theories from Marx and Weber. Coser manages to be distinct from rest of his contemporaries because he was the first to consider the functional consequences of conflict.
Introduction to the topic Martin Heidegger (1889- 1976), an important 20th Century German philosopher is considered one of the most influential theorists. Heidegger’s work has extensive contribution in the fields of philosophy, theology and humanities which were important in the development of Phenomenology, Post Modernism and other related fields of knowledge. Many scholars reveal that Heidegger’s theories are difficult to interpret and understand. He is known to use difficult vocabulary, syntax, coin new words to explain complex concepts. Expounder is an individual who elucidates a concept, theory in detail.
‘Representation’ is a key theoretical term of Durkheim’s sociology. He never defined what he meant by the term, perhaps because it was so commonly used and accepted by philosophers of his day. The noun representation is generally associated with an adjective: collective, cultural, social, and mental; said adjectives qualify a different meaning of the concept in various disciplines, although sometimes they are intertwined. In fact, every discipline has brought its own specificity. The concept of representation arises in sociology with Emile Durkheim, who first proposed it together with the adjective ‘collective’, to detect the deep bond existing between this concept and another key one for French sociologist, that of “collective Consciousness.
Introduction The risk society thesis by Ulrich Beck has been one of the most extensively discussed frameworks in environmental management (Matten, 2004). Ulrich Beck who is a German sociologist is the up-to-date theorist of modernity. Beck maintains that the risk which is intrinsic in modern society characterized by technological industrialization produces new forms of global risk society. Beck’s theory is based on the premise that the post-modernist world that we live considers safety and collective decision making on risk as more crucial than amassing wealth. Therefore considering Beck’s thesis, it is still applicable or relevant to the third world and not just only limited to the so called industrialized (first world) countries or a particular social class since globalization has no boundaries.
Rene Descartes was one the famous French philosopher of his era, he was also known as the father of modern philosophy. In addition, his ideas or theories are also considered to change the age of science during that era. The ideas or the phenomena’s he has presented in his writing are still considered as the stepping stone for the modern science. First of all, one of the basic ideas which Rene Descartes has presented was the idea of skepticism. According to him, through the phenomena of the skepticism, any truth can be verified by the theory of it.