As children will be encouraged to discover information themselves schemes will be used to enable to form a mental representation of the object or action of the information processed (Miller 2010). Thus, the children adapt and adjusts to the new information and experiences to their constantly changing environment. The two processes which will assists teachers to benefit children’s understanding of new information or experiences is assimilation and accommodation. ‘According to Piaget (1958), assimilation and accommodation require an active
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
In learner-centred learning, students "construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on" (Perumal, 2015). How do learners learn in learner-centred teaching? The term 'learner-centred' depicts that learners are the active agents who determine how learning occurs. They "influence the content, activities, materials, and pace of learning" (Froyd & Simpson, 2000) and thus take responsibility of their own learning. The teacher, who takes the role of facilitator and coach, plays the key role of creating the necessary environment for the students so that they can learn independently.
Constructivism Constructivism is another theory whose development took place at the same time as that of behaviorism, i.e., approximately 1910-1920 (Gordon, 2014). According to Gordon (2014), it is a revolutionary approach to issues related to knowledge and knowing. Humans have an innate drive to make meaning out of their lives. Therefore, certain assumptions about human learning and its nature guide constructivist learning theories and teaching methods. Learning to constructivist is an active process aiming to develop learners’ new ideas based on their current and experience and knowledge (Brandon & All, 2010).
MOTIVATION Motivation According to Ormrod (2014) defined motivation is something that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; it gets students moving, points them in a particular direction, and keeps them going. Motivation influences the way people perceive their learning environments, and it influence how much one could learn, as well as the amount of effort and sacrifice one is willing to invest in learning (McCombs & Whisler, 1997). According to McCown & Tohnson (1991) stated behavior is affected by numerous sources, where the perceived environment influence the attitudes such as, beliefs, feelings and behavioral intention of person. Intrinsic mean the psychological need, about our personal, causation, reflectance and curiosity Reeve (1992). Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an
First, as an educator, we need to emphasized to the learners the importance of learning something in application to their current and future practice. Second, the learners move from being independent and self-directed, enhancing their ability to solve problems on their own and be independent. Third, incorporate learner’s experiences into the learning process. As people mature their amount of experiences expand and serve as a rich resource for learning. Fourth, oriented learning develop when facing real-life problems.
The model, which is an updated version with more detailed extensions of self-regulated learning components, includes two broad areas which are motivation and learning strategies. The motivation construct fits into the concept of precaution phase in the self-regulation cycle established by Zimmerman (1998) , in which precaution phase indicates the influential processes and beliefs, such as task analysis and self-motivational beliefs, before efforts are put into learning stage. Expectancy refers to students ' belief in the finishing point of a task, and includes two subcomponents, student view of self-efficacy and control belief for learning. Value, showing the reason for a student to involve in a task, is measured based on three subscales such are intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, and task value beliefs. Furthermore extrinsic goals are about one 's engagement in a task due to outside rewards or benefits, such as grades or approval from others.
Introduction Learning theories are the core guidance on planning the educational system. With the knowledge of the general principles,educators can manipulate their knowledge more efficiently to meet with diversity in learning circumstances. Theory by general definition is a the establishment and an explanation of the way brain acquiring knowledge. It is a sequence of a hypothesis that corresponding to each other which should be able to outline, clarify, predict or have control of the scenario. Learning theories defined as a description of learning and the approach towards the way a person obtain, assemble and use their skills and knowledge.
Learning refers to any relatively permanent change or modification in behavior resulting from practice and or exposure conditioning. It could be motor, visual, or conceptual. Learning theories provide a theoretical outline that describes how information is absorbed, processed and retained during learning (Schunk, 2015). In this paper, I will discuss the learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism and some principles within these theories that apply to learning like classical and operant conditioning, scaffolding, schemas, situated cognition, Bloom’s taxonomy, as well metacognitive activities. With research findings, we can learn what it takes to use different parts of our brain for different learning theories.
• The design of the learning experience includes the possibility to learn from natural consequences, mistakes and successes. The Experiential Learning Process: A number of steps are involved in experiential learning that offer student a hands-on, collaborative and reflective learning experience which helps them to “fully learn new skills and knowledge” (Haynes, 2007). Although learning content is important, but experiential learning emphasis on the learning taken place through the process which is at the heart of experiential learning. During each step of the experience, students will engage with the content, the instructor, each other as well as self–reflect and apply what they have learned in another situation. The following describes the steps that comprise experiential learning as noted by (Haynes, 2007, para.
In my reading, chapter one gave me some good information about assumptions and learning tasks. Jane Vella talked about assumptions in the first chapter and how the first assumption from learners arrive with the capacity to do the work that is involved in learning. Learners must be active, be engaged and held accountable for their learning. The second assumption is that learners learn when they are actively engaged-cognitive, emotionally, and physically –with the content. Then the third assumption follows closely on new content and can be presented through learning tasks (Vella pp 2-5).