This, of course, requires quality planning on the part of a school administration to administer the testing in a way that maximizes the effectiveness of finding those students with the most risk of drug use. It is important to note that the tests will still function as a deterrent as the possibility of being caught via tests still remains prevalent. Additionally, random testing can provide financial problems as well. Many schools struggle to provide quality educations without money being diverted towards another field. Therefore, educational institutions should require random testing for their students, if the costs of doing so do not detrimentally affect their ability to teach.
In order to reduce the likelihood of Adderall abuse, it is essential that there should be a stricter policy in order to be prescribed to Adderall, or any other stimulant medication. In addition, it should be addressed the importance of taking the correct dosage and understand the potential side-effects when abusing the medication. Adderall can increase your energy level and even cause euphoria, which makes it easy to not take the correct dosage prescribed (Hall, 2012). Restrictions need to be tougher in order to get a prescription and regulated more carefully. My suggestion to reduce the medication misuse, on a micro level, is that a contract should be signed before the prescription is written.
In the realm of sports psychology, there are two main theories of how coaching influences motivation, the Behavioral Approach to Coaching (BAC) and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Both theories work in different ways in order to increase motivation and produce desired behaviors from athletes. The Behavioral Approach to Coaching utilizes operant conditioning to shape desired behaviors. Operant conditioning concerns the relationship between three events, called contingencies. Operant conditioning follows a pattern called the ABC’s: If antecedent stimuli (A) are present, and behavior (B) is enacted, then a particular consequence (C) will occur.
Thus it can be said that formative assessment supports the expectation that all children can learn to high levels and poor performance students who has the lack of ability and therefore become discouraged and unwilling can benefit from it. While feedback generally originates from a teacher, learners are also supposed to play an important role in formative assessment through self-evaluation. Two experimental research studies have shown that students who understand the learning objectives and assessment criteria and have opportunities to reflect on their work show greater improvement than those who do not (Fontana and Fernandes, 1994). Students with learning disabilities who are taught to use self-monitoring strategies related to their understanding of reading and writing tasks also show performance gains
Operant conditioning is introduced by B. F. Skinner through his theory, Skinner’s Theory, which introduced reinforcing stimulus. Despite of positive or negative the stimulus is, behaviour is likely to recur based on a reinforcer. From our findings, his contribution on this field gives a very high impact in audiology and speech sciences area of studies, to be specific. Many treatments for hearing loss and speech-language problems today was based on reinforcement and punishment method. This theory may act as an alternative way in helping the clinician to gain an accurate result during assessment.
Another recent development in the theory and method of group psychotherapy based on an integration of systems thinking is Yvonne Agazarian 's systems-centered therapy (SCT), which sees groups functioning within the principles of system dynamics. Her method of "functional subgrouping" introduces a method of organizing group communication so it is less likely to react counterproductively to differences. SCT also emphasizes the need to recognize the phases of group development and the defenses related to each phase in order to best make sense and influence group
Develop self-¬awareness to promote potential, freedom, and commitment to better life choicest and to help the client develop an internal frame of reference. The different techniques use in existential counseling is the relationship with the client. Confrontation is used by existential counselors, when they challenge the clients with their own responsibility for their lives. Furthermore Albert Bandura “ Social Cognitive theory states that behavior, environment and person/cognitive factor are all important in understanding personality. Bandura coined the term reciprocal determinism to describe the way behavior, environment, and person cognitive factors interact to create personality.
On the other hand, adding another stimulus to the SD for the learner to easily identify the correct response is called extrastimulus prompt. It is very important that prompts must be eliminated once the learner is able to engage or identify the correct response. Once the person exhbits the correct behavior at the exact time without the educator or teacher giving any cues, there is a transfer of stimulus control. Prompt fading, Prompt delay, and stimulus fading are different techniques to transfer stimulus control. Similar to shaping there are also procedures to use in prompting and transfer of stimulus
This research proves how positive reinforcement can provide a good outcome for future behaviors. Conclusion Operant conditioning is a theory which was developed by an American psychologist named B.F. Skinner. This theory has been known as a learning process. It applies to four different methods, that consists of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment. In this case positive is seen as something being added and negative as something being taken away.
“The success of counselling is assessed by what the client accomplishes in the real world outside the counselling session” (Krumboltz, 2009). Mitchell and Krumboltz (2012) also suggests that to shape the behaviour of clients, positive role models and positive reinforcement can be used by
1515), however clinicians usually choose one method over the other as oppose to combining these two exceedingly effective methods of treatment. The ultimate goal of EMDR is to bring the repetitive, negative, unconscious thought process to a halt by aiding the brains hemispheres to function normally again once the PTSD trigger is removed. The ultimate goal of CBT is for the clients to appropriately and regularly assess themselves in order to regulate undesirable behavior. Together, they adequately address the unconscious and conscious mind. These rehabilitations balance one another out by relieving symptoms early on through EMDR and providing groundwork for consistency through