First, the slaves cut the indigo plants and brought the cuttings to three large vats that descended in the order for which the process is completed. They put the cuttings into the highest vat which is filled with water. An enzyme called indimulsin, which occurs naturally in the indigo plant, breaks down indican in the plant into indoxyl and glucose. Over the course of about 14-18 hours, the indigo plant ferments and the water turns yellow because of the carbon dioxide released due to the indican being broken down. This liquid is then drained into the second tank which is the next step lower than the first.
Twenty-four hundred years later, chemical warfare still has little strategic value until World War I. In chapter five, Kean discusses how chlorine and bromine were first experimented during World War I. The French first practiced with bromine which proved to be ineffective when the shells had no immediate effect on the German troops. Soon after the attempt, a famous Jewish-German scientist named Fritz Haber emerged with big contributions to German warfare. He began a process to “capture” nitrogen and created an efficient killing explosive.
The anthraquinone dye experiment has the purpose to identify the anthraquinone dyes from unknown mixture by using thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the unknown fraction. An anthraquinone is an aromatic organic compound obtained by the oxidation of anthracene. To separate the compounds in the mixture, column chromatography and thin layer chromatography uses portioning of a sample between a stationary solid phase and a liquid mobile phase. As the stationary phase, they use either silica gel or alumina, and organic solvents as the mobile phase. In order to accomplish the experiment, an unknown which is a solution of at least two anthraquinone dyes will be used.
Before 1856, all dyes were obtained from natural resources. The first synthetic dye, Mauveine, was accidentally discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856 while he was looking for a cure for malaria. Different dyes are made of different dye molecules. Dyes have colour because they absorb light in the visible spectrum (400–700 nm), have at least one chromophore, have a conjugated system (a structure with alternating double and single bonds), and exhibit resonance
Samuel Morse was born April 27, 1791 In Charlestown Massachusetts. He died from pneumonia April 2, 1872 in New York, New York, while married to his second wife Sarah Elizabeth Griswold. He was the first child to his father Jedidiah Morse and mother Elizabeth Ann Finley Breese. His religious views were protestant, he was very anti-catholic, and thought slavery was simply fate. In “An Argument On The Ethical Position of Slavery”, he touched down on the subject by saying, “ He attended Yale University at the age of fourteen in 1805 and graduated five years later at the age of nineteen.
It seems that Joseph worked on his own, there's no record of him working with anyone, and he took the full credit for discovering Trinitrotoluene. Let's move on to the reason Joseph Wilbrand is so famous. In 1856, 18 year old chemist William perkins tried to make malaria medicine from coal tar but accidentally discovered the first synthetic dye, mauve. Seeing Perkins a young millionaire, chemists all over chased two different goals to become rich, searching for new synthetic colors, and finding more coal. Perkins mauve was a aniline dye ( chemical compound of NH2) so other chemists started playing around with similar stuff that had the same molecular shape.
Through endeavors they transformed from making exclusively an artificial sweetener to more diverse products. Following the original founders death his son grew Monsanto Chemical Works into an empire creating more chemicals including, herbicides, pesticides, and industrial fluid. 1949, a pressure valve breaks in a factory neighboring a small town dusting
Before Britain passed the tea act research proves. “In March 1765 Britain passed a law called the stamp act that made every colonist pay for taxes on every piece of printed paper they used”(Carr). The colonist was so mad they would take out stamp act agents and later would be incarcerated. The Englishmen didn 't approve of the tax on tea research shows. “ before the dumping of the tea, there was an act made that when tea entered Boston all tea was taxed 3 pence a pound”(Macaulay).
Chemicals were mixed in order listed previously mentioned, kneading and mixing of chemicals until solid ball was formed. The order in which chemicals were mixed to together as previously mentioned were due to the fact of the chemical reaction formula researched showing the application of polyvinyl alcohol plus polyvinyl acetate and with the addition of borate in the middle to act a buffer for pH for the better adhesion of reactants. And the corn starch was added at end of reaction so it would provide the bouncy ball with more density and consistency and reduce friction due to its viscosity. After bouncy ball was formed, it was tested for best performance in bounce, elasticity, and temperature change resistance. For quality testing purposes.
Electrical charge is static electricity, or electricity that does not move. The knowledge of electricity dates back to 600 B.C. While the Greeks did not know they had discovered static electricity, they observed that rubbing fossilized tree resin, or amber, with animal fur made the resin attract dried grass. In 1600 AD. An English physicist named William Gilbert wrote books on the attractive nature of amber and used the Latin word "electricus" as a description.
In science class, we did an experiment to compare inks and their compositions. This was intended for us to learn about chromatography; the separation of a mixture through a medium (the chromatography paper) in which the components move at different rates and create different patterns. We chose to explore this topic by using four different colored markers, placing a dot of each color onto one piece of chromatography paper, and observing while the water in the beaker travels up the paper and separates the dyes. Before we started, we made a hypothesis. Mine was if paper chromatography is done on the ink in the green, red, brown, and black marker, then the green will spread out into different shades of blue and green making a pointed oval shape.
When someone says Egypt the first thing that comes to mind is often the Pyramids of Giza but, so much more lies beyond that. Many people don’t know that after Sumer, Egypt was one of the civilizations with its own form of writing. When the Rosetta Stone was uncovered it was universally acknowledged that the French had struck gold. This magnificent stone uncovered mysteries of the ancient world that would lead to new discoveries for centuries to come. Thirty-five miles northeast of Alexandria, in a small town known as el-Rashid (which translates to Rosetta) long before the modern day, a slab of black granodiorite was used to inscribe some of archaeology’s most precious words.
Today 's dyes are also different they are often made by chemists. The chemist can do that because of the technology we have now, we can understand how the dye reacts with the molecules inside the different materials. Also the chemist can design dyes that don’t fade away or come off in the washing machine. In addition to what type of material they are made from, another way to categorize fibers is by their chemistry. Cotton and linen fibers are cellulose-based.
This depiction was made a century and a half before Europeans began to manufacture artillery pieces. By the mid- to late-eleventh century, the Song government had become concerned about gunpowder technology spreading to other countries. The sale of saltpeter to foreigners was banned in 1076. Nonetheless, knowledge of the miraculous substance was carried along the Silk Road to India, the Middle East, and Europe. In 1267, a European writer made reference to gunpowder, and by 1280 the first recipes for the explosive mixture were published in the west.
Nathanael Hawthorne was an American writer born in Salem, Massachusetts to a family with a long New England history. Hawthorne, although not entirely interested in higher education, enrolled at Bowdoin College in 1821. In 1848, Hawthorne lost his job; the following year he lost his mother, but it was also the year that Hawthorne found a worn letter “A” in the attic of the old home and with it came the inspiration to write his arguably most famous novel, the scarlet letter. The scarlet letter was one of the first mass-produced books in the United States. Writing was his vocation.