The teacher can regulate instructions rapidly during learning development, allowing students to benefit from these rapid adjustments by means of regulating and emerging own learning progress. Feedback occurs while learning takes place, and effective feedback identifies the gap between where student remains at and where student desires to be. The teacher can be confronted with predicaments performed during formative assessments. There remain no obvious solutions to a situation, and a decision made, exists dependent on the individual situation, appropriate to the teacher and student involved. The teacher relies on professional judgement, formatively assessing the purpose of provoked action.
However, the way that learner proceed to each stage and the theoretical approach to the conditioning and development can be emerged in constructivism. Constructivism is an operating, constructive process as a paradigm. The theory thinks the people voluntary build their own representation or knowledge in an objective matter. It applied learning theory and the nature of knowledge. The constructivism view demonstrates the importance of focusing on the learner’s thinking about learning rather than its subject.
In this study, the instruction followed the criterial tasks of the K-12 Curriculum. The teacher was a facilitator guiding the learners to arrive at the meaning of a difficult word. While the teacher acted as a facilitator, the learners were involved in an activity of identifying the meaning of a difficult word using speed drawing and kinesics. Lastly, the learning strategies used in this study is akin to that of the K-12 Curriculum which is performance-based. Speed drawing and kinesics as strategies in improving vocabulary retention are characterized by direct participation of learners.
It also encourages the cognitive apprentice approach where reflective practices of learner (learner-self interaction) and the interaction between the learner and the facilitator are crucial, similar to my personal lens. The function of context is another aspect of my personal lens aligns with the established theory where contextual learning is the key. Using authentic contextual experiences that are decided by learners drive the learning experiences in my kind of classroom. Finally, with regards to the role of facilitators, both views support that educators should provide guidance from reliance to gradually move to independent
In other word, the knowledge is constructed by the learner through training through interaction. With the above points, this enhances the assertion from Cronjé 's point (2006) that both objectivism and constructivism paradigm for learning have different objectives. As stated by Jonassen (1991), the two theories of objectivism and constructivism are portrayed as polar extremes on a continuum of externally mediated reality (objectivism) to internally mediated reality (constructivism) (Appendix 1). And most theorists take positions in between the continuum during instructional designing. This point is further supported by Meyer (2003, cited in Cronjé, 2006) and Mayer and Moreno (2003, cited in Cronjé, 2006), they have suggested that the learning relies on upon intensive utilization of components from both sides of the continuum, but not on the claiming of any
Diagnostic assessment establishes a baseline for standards within the course, allows student to determine their preparedness for their current learning activities and also permit teachers to adjust their introductory activities so that majority of the learners are able to participate at a meaningful level. Formative assessment intends to improve the teaching and learning process through the feedback it gathers. Summative assessment is used primarily for progression and certification purposes. Integrative assessment describes specific types of task with specific outcomes and reward mechanism. The primary purpose of this assessment is to provide feedback (judgement) on the learner’s ability to be self-regulated.
As a productive skill, teaching writing needs a lot of time, and the teacher should be creative to choose an approach, method, and strategy. Writing is considered by many to be the most difficult and complex skill. It is therefore placed in the last teaching after students have learned the other language skill. White (1986) argued that teaching writing are more complicated and it takes more times than teaching other subject. Accordingly, Knapp and Watkins (2005, p. 14) state that “Learning to write is a difficult and complex series of processes that require a range of explicit teaching methodologies throughout all the stages of learning”.
The object of learning refers to what the students need to learn to achieve the desired learning objectives. There are two aspects of object of learning pointed out by Lo (2012): the specific aspect (refers to the subject matter, knowledge or skill that we wish students to learn) and the general (the capabilities that can be developed through the learning of the specific aspect). The object of learning is dynamic, even though teachers will have an intended object of learning, teachers need to adjust according to students’ responses during the course of teaching (Lo, 2012). There are three differentiation of object of: the intended, the enacted and the lived object of learning (Marton, Runesson & Tsui, 2004). The intended object of learning refers to the intended learning outcome of the lesson.
As a student faces increasingly complex activities, the teacher must ensure through examinations and assignments the student is performing at their correct grade level. If a child is performing below expectations, a successful strategy to assist the child is to place them with a peer who is excelling in the program as they can help the child complete and understand activities. Many students who study ESL through school are preparing themselves for either the IELTS or TOEFL which are international examinations that certify an individual’s fluidity in English (CITE). This two-and-a-half-hour exam is often the determining factor for non-native English speakers and their opportunity to attend a high-tiered English university. Due to this examination, many ESL teachers are expected to teach concepts which are on the test.
When it comes to EFL students, the difficulty of reading becomes even more complicated. The readers must be aware of the implicit and explicit data that is being transferred. In fact, being able to read competently is one of the most important skills that we need to have in today's world. 3.1. Genre-based