Politeness is a hard concept to define, but in the opinion of many scholars such as Leech (1983), Brown and Levinson (1987) and Terkourafi (2004) constitutes one of the most important aspects of human interpersonal communication. In order to at least generally explain how politeness works and how it is achieved in interaction, Geoffrey Leech, in 1983, proposed his Principle of Politeness (PP from now on). Leech takes as his point of departure Grice’s Cooperative Principle and its maxims, and considers them useful when it comes to figuring out the difference between the sense and the force of an utterance, but ineffectual at the level of understanding why people employ politeness when communicating . In general, Leech claims, people tend to make confusion between what he calls “relative politeness” and “absolute politeness”. Moreover, he observes, politeness is culturally bounded as every culture possesses its own concept and degrees of politeness in language use.
1. Politeness Theory Politeness phenomenon over decades calls for explanation, raise sociological speculations, and touch many other interests and many other fields. So, politeness theory has emerged as being one of the central interests in sociolinguistics, social psychology, conversation analysis and anthropology generating an enormous body of research (Brown and Levinson, 1987: 01- 02). In the view of that politeness theory combines speech act theory and Grice’s theory of implicatures with Gofman’s notion of face. It is defined as “the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself during a particular contact (Ogiermann, 2009: 11).
2.3. Lakoff’s rules of politeness Robin Tolmach Lakoff is a linguist who is famous from her work ‘Language and Woman’s Place’, and in this part of the chapter his rules of politeness will be presented. She was analyzing, the Co-operative Principles by Grice, which have been described in the previous part. Moreover, Lakoff claims that Grice’s maxims are too general. The words “relevance” and “amount of information” used by Grice in his theory, needs a better explanation.
Brown and Levinson’s (1987) theory has been considered as the most influential theory of politeness. Their theory is based on Goffman’s (1971) assumptions, focusing mainly on his notion of face. Goffman defined the concept of face as the “positive social value of a person effectively claims for himself by the live others assume he has taken a particular contact” (2005, p. 5). In politeness theory that is adopted from Grice’s (1975) cooperative principle, Brown and Levinson (1987) attempted to clarify Austin’s (1962) classification of utterances, which related to the social functions of language within interaction bearing and speaker’s rationality in conversation. Brown and Levinson defined the notion of face with “the aspects of face as basic wants, which every member knows every other member desires, and which in general, it is in the interests of every member to partially satisfy” (1987, p. 62).
proper light, which is fundamental to any postcolonial discourse. This is so because the voice of the subaltern is often appropriated by those who seek to represent them. Ghosh, however, treats their epistemology at par with and often even superior to the conventional Euro-centric methods of acquiring knowledge. So, Kanai’s or Piya’s representation of Fokir is not appropriated, because in their relationship with each other, there is an underlying sense of respect. Fokir in this regard can also be classified as an intellectual in the Gramscian sense of the term, since people like him can also make a significant contribution to knowledge: There is no human activity from which every form of intellectual participation can be excluded: homo faber cannot be separated from homo sapiens.
Translation is not merely an inter-linguistic process. It 's more complex than replacing source language text with target language text and includes cultural and educational nuances that can shape the options and attitudes of others. Translation is a bridge between peoples. "Translation is a point of contact between peoples, and since it is rare that two people have the same access to power, the translator is in a privileged position as mediator, to make explicit the differences between cultures, expose injustices or contribute to diversity in the world". (Gil and Guzmán 2010) Every aspect of our social and political life is now heavily mediated by translators and interpreters, hence their increased visibility.
“Definite” and “indefinite” articles are the terms that are usually used to apply in noun phrases (NPs). The usage of both definite and indefinite article is the most common written in every academic text and as well as in our daily life conversation as it comes as a function to make references to various things. In the English language itself, articles are among the most frequently occurring function words. This shows that even these two small words have their own powerful effects on a speaker’s speech styles and expression. By having the proficiency in the usage, it will provide non-native speakers with the better level of accuracy in their speech for the listeners to perceive.
A Comparison In the past, spoken language was downgraded while the written language was essentially regarded as a reliable benchmark for what is standard or appropriate. Recently, however, there has been a growing recognition of its significance. In fact, the renowned linguist Micheal Halliday adamantly argued that the language system’s potential is much more realized in spoken than in written discourse. Do these two unique languages differ? The answer to this intriguing question is obviously yes and determining the extent of their difference is this academic essay’s core objective.
English in the Modern World Language is an important tool that we use nowadays. In the first place, we are not only using it to creating an idea or for communicating, but also to build friendship in a work or educational ties. We can communicate without language by using signs. Language can open our minds and develops our personality. The more language we know the better we will be.
First of all he said that during all his life he has been any grateful to the fact that they have such a linguistic state, because it opens the door of the world. Maybe it is one of the reasons why India in spite of its geographical position has been always so close to all the political, economic and cultural events. So English helps to be in touch with whole the world. But at the same time he persuaded me that “you cannot be sure that because of the English language you will probably be hired on a very good position in a company, all the educated people know it. But you have an opportunity to go abroad and enter university you really want to be.