Proteins are complex macromolecules that are formed by elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Proteins composed of one or more polypeptide chains of amino acids. The main functions of proteins are to structure, support, protect, make movement, catalyst, transport and make hormones in human body. In the structural role, collagen and elastin provide support for connective tissue. Actin and myosin are proteins that involved in muscle contraction and movement.
PHYSIOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION: These lipase enzymes have a widespread biological activity in biological processes from usual metabolism of dietary triglycerides to signalling pathways and inflammatory mechanisms. Thus they are both intracellular and extracellular. 1. Lysosome cell organelle has
Eukaryotic cells contain many important organelles and without them the cell cannot function accurately. With organelles such as the nucleus which directs cell activity and contains DNA, ribosomes which make protein, the vacuole which is used for storage and in order for the cell to survive; the mitochondria. The mitochondria are often described as the energy powerhouse of the cell as organisms need energy to maintain homeostasis. The mitochondria are found in the cell cytoplasm and are double membrane enclosed organelles ‘which is best known for its critical function in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, a pathway that generates many more ATP molecules per glucose molecules than glycolysis’ (John Wiley & sons, 2009) . Mitochondria
Goblet cells (unicellular glands) are located between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum. They secrete mucus, which is a lubricating substance that keeps the surface smooth. • Function: Secretion of mucus enzymes. Ciliated type propels mucus. • Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Simple columnar epithelial cells, however, in addition, they have fine hair-like outgrowths, cilia on their free edges.
It usually takes place inside the vacuole of specialized cells called crystal idioblasts. The specialized cell has enlarged nucleus, specialized plastids, increased endoplasmic reticulum, elevated levels of rRNA, and unique vacuolar components. The abundant Golgi complexes in these idioblasts have also been found to be involved in transporting a calcium binding crystal idioblast specific protein, a matrix protein, to the vacuole (Faheed et al.,
These mechanical changes, driven by putative molecular motors, are assumed to produce amplification of vibrations in the cochlea that are transduced by inner hair cells. Here we have identified an abundant complementary DNA from a gene, designated Prestin, which is specifically expressed in outer hair cells. Regions of the encoded protein show moderate sequence similarity to pendrin and related sulphate/anion transport proteins. Voltage-induced shape changes can be elicited in cultured human kidney cells that express prestin. The mechanical response of outer hair cells to voltage change is accompanied by a 'gating current', which is manifested as nonlinear capacitance.
With the presence of NAD+, malate will then be transported into cytosol and will be converted back into oxaloacetate. The conversion will then reduces NAD+ into NADH and H+. The conversion from oxaloacetate into malate serve to move NAD+ from mitochondria into cytosol which is important in gluconeogenesis to proceed. In conclusion of this reaction, pyruvate carboxylase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate into oxaloacetate in TCA cycle. But oxaloacetate needed to be converted into malate first before it can exit the mitochondria.
The electron density for X is mostly consistent with N, C, or O, but efforts to identify this atom have yet to be successful. FeMo-cofactor is anchored to the MoFe protein by α-275Cys to an iron atom at one end and α-442His to the Mo atom at the other end (Figure
The instructions for the order of amino acids are made by the genes in an organisms cell. A process called DNA transcription makes up the sequence of the amino acids and then a specific protein is produced. Each protein structure has a specific function in it. Changing the structure will then change its function since it rearranges everything in the protein structure. Proteins are there for an essential part of the body, since it helps form body tissues, like muscles, organs and is used within many biological processes as well.