Dyslipidemia Research Paper

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INTRODUCTION Dyslipidemia is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency. Dyslipidemias may be manifested by elevation of the total cholesterol, the "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the triglyceride concentrations, and a decrease in the "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration in the blood. High cholesterol, or dyslipidemia, means that there is an imbalance of fats (lipids), circulating in your blood stream. Cholesterol is a fatty substance your body uses to make hormones and metabolize food. Three different measurements to determine your overall lipid health: 1. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), also known as “bad cholesterol” – if you have too much LDL,…show more content…
The free fatty acids are then used as an energy source, converted to triglyceride, or stored in adipose tissue. The end-products of chylomicron metabolism are chylomicron remnants that are cleared from the circulation by hepatic chylomicron remnant receptors for which apo E is a high-affinity ligand. The chylomicron remnants contain a smaller core of lipids that is enveloped by excess surface components. These surface constituents are transferred from the chylomicron remnant for the formation of high density lipoprotein.…show more content…
VLDL particles contain a core of triglycerides (60 percent by mass) and cholesterol esters (20 percent by mass). Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is an intracellular lipid-transfer protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is essential for the transfer of the lipid molecules (principally triglycerides) onto apolipoprotein (apo) B 100 in the liver .[14, 15] The surface apolipoproteins for VLDL are noted above. They include apo C-II, which acts as a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase; apo C-III, which inhibits this enzyme; and apo B-100 and E, which serve as ligands for the apolipoprotein B/E (low density lipoprotein [LDL]) receptor .[16] In the absence of functional MTP, VLDL is not secreted into the circulation. Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare genetic disorder in which MTP is absent. The triglyceride core of nascent VLDL particles is hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase. During lipolysis, the core of the VLDL particle is reduced, generating VLDL remnant particles (also called intermediate density lipoprotein [IDL]) that are depleted of triglycerides via a process similar to the generation of chylomicron remnants. Some of the excess surface components in the remnant particle, including phospholipid, unesterified cholesterol, and apolipoproteins A, C and E, are transferred to high density lipoprotein

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