Atorvastatin is an example of a statin medication. The role of a statin is to inhibit HMG-coA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in endogenous cholesterol synthesis. The characteristics of statins include large hydrophobic groups which bind tightly and alter the conformation of the HMG-coA reductase enzyme. HMG-coA reductase catalyzes HMG-coA to mevalonate, which goes through a multi-step process that ultimately leads to cholesterol as a product. Also, statins are very effective because they bind tightly to the enzyme compared to the substrate to block the pathway of cholesterol synthesis.
Figure 8: Hydrolysis of triacylglycerols by pancreatic lipase (modified from ) The optimal activity of pancreatic lipase is between pH 6.5 to 8.0 . Pancreatic lipase binds to the emulsion interface with the help of prior binding of colipase which is an essential cofactor for exerting pancreatic lipase action. Naturally secreted bile salts help in removing adsorbed water soluble proteins including lipase from the surface which prevents from inhibiting
Further, the sustained inhibition of the cholesterol synthesis in liver decreaseslevels of VLDL(very low density lipoproteins). 2.3 Indications and usage: 2.3.1 Primary Hyperlipidemia and Mixed Dyslipidemia: Pitavastatin is indicated to reduce elevated total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides (TG),Apo lipoprotein B (Apo B), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and to increase HDL-C in adult patients with mixed dyslipidemia or primary
Increased pressure also causes the mediastinum to move and negatively affect the venous return to the right atrium1. The hypoxia and impaired venous return leads to cardiac disfunction which can include systemic hypotension. A pneumothorax will cause a progressive decrease in respiratory and cardiac function if not treated. A spontaneous pneumothorax results in a decrease in vital capacity and PaO21. The reduction in the ventilation-perfusion ratio results in alveolar hypoventilation, causing the reduction in PaO2.
Individual Application: Cholesterol a) The shape of cholesterol is that it’s composed of three different fragments, a hydrocarbon tail, four steroid (hydrocarbon) rings, and a hydroxyl group. Since the hydroxyl group is polar, and the hydrocarbon rings and hydrocarbon tail are non-polar, it makes the molecule amphiphilic. The size of cholesterol varies between what types of cholesterol that is being observed. The two types of cholesterol found in the blood are low-density lipoprotein (LDP, the ‘bad’ one) and high-density lipoprotein (HDP, the ‘good’ one). Also, there are two types of LDP cholesterol particles, type-B, which are small and dense, and type-A, which are large and fluffy.
Impaired ejection fraction from the left ventricle reduces cardiac output. A reduced cardiac output impairs tissue perfusion, and causes pulmonary vascular congestion. Hypoxemia secondary to impaired gas exchange and cardiac output shifts cell metabolism to anaerobic, causing an accumulation of lactic acid, thus increasing metabolic acidity (Urden et al., 2014). This results in tachypnoea and dyspnoea as the body attempts to eliminate carbon dioxide to correct pH imbalance. Poor oxygen saturation relative to FiO2 and crepitation are secondary to pulmonary congestion and oedema.
This can happen if you drink more fluids than you pass urine or if you're dealing with a lot of desmopressin. Excess water can lead to problems with blood levels of electrolytes, particularly sodium. They can makes a low sodium levels are very low. Signs that you may have included headache, dizziness and weight gain-plus water. Low sodium levels can make you feel sleepy and confused in severe cases can lead to a spell (spell) and loss of consciousness.
Cyclodextrins are ring sugar molecules that form guest (propofol)-host complexes migrating between the hydrophilic center of the cyclodextrin molecule and the water-soluble phase. This allows propofol, which is poorly soluble in water, to be presented in an injectable form. After injection, propofol migrates out of the cyclodextrin into the
It is secreted by type II alveolar cells, which secrete alveolar fluid (surfactant is a component of alveolar fluid). Surfactant is a mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins, which serves to lower the surface tension of alveolar fluid, 30 preventing collapse of alveoli and maintaining their patency 8. Meconium, when aspirated into the lungs, deactivates surfactant. Research has also shown that meconium disturbs surfactant synthesis, with a study concluding that surfactant phosphatidylcholine (a phospholipoprotein which forms about 85% of the lipid component in surfactant) concentrations are low in infants with meconium aspiration syndrome 14. In addition, another study has demonstrated the surfactant-stripping effect of meconium, due to the high minimum surface tensions of the major free fatty acids of meconium (palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids) 15,16.
In the same way if your bad cholesterol is high, and you are eating food that improves good cholesterol, you will not get the optimum results. Of course, there is one food that increases good cholesterol and decreases bad cholesterol at the same time. I’ll get to that in a moment but first… What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a waxy substance
Cystic Fibrosis is an inherited disorder involving fluid secretion by the exocrine glands in the epithelial lining of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and reproductive tracts (Porth, 2011, p.584). The cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CRTF) gene helps in the regulation of chloride through the epithelial membrane of the cells. A mutation in the CRTF gene causes impaired transport of chloride which increases sodium absorption and water into the blood. Once water moves into the blood it lowers the amount of water of the mucociliary blanket of the respiratory epithelium. Thus, the mucociliary function to not work and secretions (or thick mucus) to build up and block up airways (Porth, 2011, p.585).
The liver is the organ affected during an Hepatitis B infection. The liver is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and has several important functions. The function of the liver is to remove excess glucose, which is also known as blood sugar, from the blood stream and stores it as glycogen ( a form of starch ). When the blood sugar level is low, the liver converts glycogen back into glucose and releases it for use by the body. The liver also destroys old erythrocytes, which are red blood cells, removes poisons from the blood, and manufactures some blood proteins.
Chymotrypsin is produced in the small intestine and is released when there is a sizable amount of amino acids, fatty acids in the small intestine, and it stimulates secretion of the pancreatic enzymes and releases bile by gallbladder while allows for the fats to have an increased surface area. This makes it much easier for the the proteins to be absorbed into the bloodstream. The gastric inhibitory peptide secreted when fatty acids and sugars are present in the small intestine and the presences of this peptide inhibitor is that it stops stomach movements and release of stomach acid. The last of these three is gastrin which is produced in the stomach opposed to the intestines, and is released when there is an influx of peptides and amino acids. The hormone stimulates acid secretion by the cells in the stomach which allows it to kill bacteria and break down
It can also happen to due kidney diseases. They are three kinds of Metabolic alkalosis, 1) Hypocloermic alkalosis is caused by an extreme lack or loss of chloride, from prolonged vomiting. 2) Hypokelemic alkalosis, which is caused by the kidneys response to an extreme loss or lack of potassium. This can happen from taking diuretics. 3) Compensated alkalosis, which occurs when the body returns the acid-base balance but the carbon dioxide and bicarbonate levels, remain abnormal.