However, when these bacteria are grouped together to have high cell density, the molecules they secrete amount to a certain number, and once that number is reached, the behavior of that bacteria is switched on and in this case, bioluminescence is created. Similarly, in my project, I am screening the anti bacterial activity using oils. Before I use the oil, I have to culture the bacteria overnight so that I could use them in the plates after 16-18 hours of incubation. Based on the talk, I believe that I have an idea on how bacteria grow. This Ted Talk has inspired me about science in numerous aspects.
An example is sulfomethoxazole [SMX] of the sulfonamide family: some bacteria utilize para-amino benzoic acid[PABA] a start-up product in producing folic acid –containing intermediates for DNA replication, using the enzyme dihydroptorate synthase to produce dihydroptorate. SMX blocks this enzyme, but these days, study has shown some bacteria that totally for-go this PABA pathway, these bacteria are now resistant to SMX because it really has nothing to work on. Enzymatic destruction of antibiotics: some microbes develop antibiotics resistance by producing enzyme to destroy the antibiotics. An example is the beta-lactam antibiotics, namely penicillins, amoxicillin. These antibiotics have this part of their chemistry, the beta-lactam rings, some organisms especially the gram-negatives carry in their periplasm enzymes called beta-lactamses, to destroy any drug with this beta-lactam rings. Reduced uptake: some microbes also develop a mechanism to reduce the uptake of antibiotics, an example is resistance to the
Usually, a tractor beam is used to guide shuttle craft through launches and landings, and for towing other vessels. Scientists in Australia developed optical tweezers, which have the characteristics of a tractor beam. These tweezers precisely manipulate molecules by harnessing small lasers into beams. This is essential in measuring the mechanical properties of bacterial cells such as E.coli. Optical tweezers are also used to study the physical properties of DNA.
Introduction A topic we have covered in class that interested me most was on the power of antibiotics, as well as, how bacteria’s resistance to drugs, specifically antibiotics, can evolve quickly. According to what I have learned in class, antibiotics are used to kill bacteria by inhibiting cell-wall biosynthesis, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, and inhibiting bacterial DNA replication. This also brought us to the discussion of the first antibiotic to be manufactured against illness-induced bacteria during World War II which was Penicillin. The discovery of the antibiotic Penicillin was by the British Bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928. This led me to my essential question for this particular research paper which is to figure
“The nucleus which has the DNA to set the proteins, that are maintain in the structures and the functions of the bacteria. The cell wall helps the bacteria keep it’s shape. The plasma membrane is when waste goes through the nutrients, that move through the cell. The ribosomes are involved in the structures that are in the production of the cell proteins. The capsule is a shell that protects the bacteria.
CCCCC We can use the following analogy to (Peter Daempfle, 2001) translate the DNA to mRNA. We can also use this analogy to determine from the mentioned sequences which is not a correct translation of the mRNA.DNA matches with mRNA in:A matches with UT matches with AG matches with CC matches with G The odd one out from the sequence is clearly (b) that is UTTCTTT this is because the code T is from a DNA sequence rather than from a mRNA sequence. Peter Daempfle (2001). `Essential Biology An applied approach` Kendall hunt publishing Company Correct Answer: n/a ********************************************************************************************************** 9. Some antibiotics are used to kill bacteria by stopping the ribosome from functioning.
Cycloheximide applies its impact by interfering with the translocation steps in protein synthesize (development of two tRNA atoms and mRNA in connection to the ribosome), hence blocking translational prolongation. Cycloheximide is generally utilized as a part of biomedical research to repress protein synthesize in eukaryotic cells except for S.aureus and E.coli contemplated in vitro (i.e. outside of microorganism). It is cheap and works quickly. Actually after the interaction of 72 hours, both growth of E.coli and S.aureus will be inhibited by Cycloheximide antibiotic. But for our experiment, E.coli shows negative result which means it is resistant toward Cycloheximide and do not producing a clear zone.
There are many types of antibiotics , and I will write about some of them. Some antibiotics enter the body immediately and attack the DNA in the bacteria. As we know, every organism has cells, and one of the most important in these cells is DNA, because it controls everything inside the cell, so it will be very effective in attacking DNA inside the cells. After that, the bacteria can not survive, so we will have gotten rid of it. In this situation, we have two ways to attack DNA.
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a bacteria resistant to all antibiotics containing penicillin. MRSA otherwise known as a superbug has been produced through the process of natural selection inside hospitals, which provide the perfect environment for this bacteria to thrive in. Bacteria like MRSA are hard to treat as there are fewer antibiotics to treat it therefore increasing its deadliness. The antimicrobial resistance in MRSA is genetically based, meaning that it can spread its immunity amongst other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. MRSA is a bacteria that can withstand antibiotics containing penicillins.
After my Bachelor of Science in Physics at Emory, I worked as a research assistant as I investigated the components of cellular function using Escherichia coli as a model organism in Dr. Minsu Kim’s research laboratory. Through manipulation at the molecular level, (i.e., altering genes, proteins, and metabolites to induce a synthetic biological system) we characterized certain functions of the cells by first understanding each individual component. To understand the relationship between each component and a certain function of the cell, we used quantitative experiments to bridge the biological processes at the molecular and cellular level using Biophysics techniques and mathematical modeling. My investigation included growing cells in minimal media with different strains of NCM 3722 E. coli, and I conducted viability assays to determine the death rate of cells after they reached stationary phase. Using minimal media, which is carbon and nitrogen free, we can manipulate the amount of carbon or nitrogen source, hence, the cell density in each culture.
Studying Biomedical Sciences would teach me a vast array of different topics like Anatomy, Cellular Biology and Pharmacology which would give me a further understanding on the functions of life. Studying Biology at A- level has answered only a few of my queries about the human body and has improved my analytical skills. Studying chemistry at A- level has improved my logical skills as we learned complex chemical reactions like the formation of aspirin from acid anhydrides. I have completed the EPQ which is on “How does antibacterial resistance happen and can it be replaced by alternatives?”
Introduction: Transforming a gene or genetic information from one organism into another with the hopes that if done successfully the organism with the new DNA will be given new traits is a method known as genetic transformation (Rafter). Genetic transformation is used quite frequently in today’s world, form medicine to agriculture. In this lab we will be inserting a gene into an Escherichia coli bacteria with the help of a plasmid. Escherichia coli bacteria also known as E. coli, is a bacterium that is rod shaped and contains flagella to help it move.
n this lab, there were four objectives needed to be met. The first one was to perform a genetic transformation procedure, the second was to move genes from one organism to another using a plasmid as a vector, and the third was to manipulate tools of biotechnology. The bacteria E. coli was used to manipulate and transform. The E. coli would be tested for ampicillin resistance and a green fluorescent glow. One hypothesis made for this lab was that the bacteria that developed a resistance to ampicillin would reproduce even in the presence of the ampicillin.