For instance, the belief about how hard the person is working and the salary it receives. Moreover, the change in perception of others leads a person to see that someone else is working harder so deserves more outputs. Furthermore, the change in comparison with a new person that is more appropriate instead of the previous person which is not suitable anymore. Finally, leaving the organization or the department for another (McKenna, 2012, p.113). The goal-setting introduced by Locke and refers to the significance of people’s goals or purposes in defining the behaviour (Mullins, 2010, p.277).
Employee to work for satisfying needs. The different behaviour theorists and psychologists have propounded the need based theories to guide the managers for understanding the need pattern of employees and using these for motivating them. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory in (1943) paper A“theory of human motivation” psychological review Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans ' innate curiosity. According to Maslow‘s human want to motivate they want physiological needs is mostly requirements survival. And safety need also required like a good health, financial, job security and including
Goleman (1998) asserted that those with the highest EQ level form part of the effective employees and grow to become an efficient leader. Motivating and guiding others also part of her role by efficiently and rapidly process and interpret information being a disturbance handler and a middle manager. Jess should have critical thinking skills to analyze and interpret information and act upon when taking decisions, moreover she can apply a democratic leadership style that is accepting and considering others ideas and point of view. In addition, she can adopt and implement different motivation theories such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs or the Alderfer’s ERG theory which apply to different personalities depending on the needs of the people. Most of people are motivated by financial rewards but they also have multiple needs which mean that Jess will need to evaluate and determine the best strategies for the staffs.
Behavior that is performed for its own sake is intrinsically motivated and behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment is extrinsically motivated. Examples of extrinsic motivators are salary, working conditions and job security, while opportunities to use one 's own initiative and creativity are examples of intrinsic motivators. ( - ) The vast diversity of people and the complexity of their behavior have led to a broad range and variety of motivation theories. The purpose of these motivation theories is to attempt to explain and predict observable behavior. ( ) Motivation theories can be broadly divided in two groups: needs theories and process theories.
The aforementioned needs are divided into upper and lower levels, within the first are the physiological and safety needs; while in the latter they are the association needs estimation and self-actualisation. Tesco encourages motivation by its particular training and development plans. Everyone has access not only to the training they need to do their work well but also to leadership training to improve within the Tesco. Existence, Relatedness and Growth (ERG) 1972 Clayton Alderfer theory postulated by Yale University has a close relationship with the theory of Maslow. The author proposes three sets of primary needs: Existence, Relationships and Growth, hence its name ERG
Usually these kind of needs drive the individual towards special kinds of behaviour. Since this is learned needs, their strength varies from one individual to another. Example of some of these needs are, power, affiliation, achievement and approval. 2.30 HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Figure 1 Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow%27s_hierarchy_of_needs Humanistic psychologist, Abraham Maslow says that the needs is like a ladder-like steps. As the upward movement of ladder, our needs are met according the steps.
Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Maslow 's ideas which surround the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a positive and motivating workplace environment and which enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential are today more relevant than ever. The basis of Maslow 's motivation theory is that human beings have unsatisfied needs which need to be fulfilled in order to motivate them but these needs are in a particular order and that the lower needs have to be satisfied before the higher needs. According to Maslow, there are certain basic of needs (physiological, survival, safety, love, and esteem) that need to be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. Maslow named these terms as "deficiency needs”.
The diagram below illustrates Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Figure 1.- Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Source : Google images (2014) Abraham Maslow (1954) developed the hierarchy of needs model which can help us understand the basis of human motivation. Maslow claims that it is the manager’s responsibility to identify the respective stage each employee belongs to and ensure the employee proceeds up the hierarchy, subsequently achieving the higher level needs. (Management Study Guide, 2013) Benefits Limitations • It is a more holistic, humanistic and positive approach to the study of human motivation. (Atapattu, 2013) • The same need may trigger different behavior, as employee characteristics vary.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship that exists between employee motivation and job performance and to provide organizations hence providing mangers with useful information on each area. The general assumption is that a sufficiently motivated worker will in turn give his or best towards the attainment of a general consensus. This chapter expansively reviews the collective literature relevant to employee motivation and job performance. Accordingly, the literature review in this chapter includes; (a) two different perspectives of employee motivation, (b) outlook of job satisfaction, (c) and the impact of motivation on job performance. The general method employed in this literature review consists of providing insight from
Expectancy Value theory, denotes that ones ability is based on self-perception (Wiggfield & Eccles. 2000). High and low incentive value goals explicate that people will aspire to conquer goals dependent on the value of the incentive with that of the goal value. Situational and environmental attributions have a vast effect on successful motivation. Various studies have been conducted to determine the specific external factors that lead to the decline or subsequent incline of motivation.