It also encourages the cognitive apprentice approach where reflective practices of learner (learner-self interaction) and the interaction between the learner and the facilitator are crucial, similar to my personal lens. The function of context is another aspect of my personal lens aligns with the established theory where contextual learning is the key. Using authentic contextual experiences that are decided by learners drive the learning experiences in my kind of classroom. Finally, with regards to the role of facilitators, both views support that educators should provide guidance from reliance to gradually move to independent
In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
The basic concept of learning is based on this theory. The mental processes as they are being influenced by either intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors, which eventually results in learning acquisition of an individual. Knowledge systems of cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners based on pre-existing cognitive structures. The teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that promotes discovery and assimilation/accommodation. The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment.
Nunan and Bailey (2009) defined classroom observation as “a family of related procedures for gathering data during actual language lessons or tutorial sessions, primarily by watching, listening, and recording” (p. 258). Also, an interview was conducted with the classroom professor, Dr. Albert Mackay (a pseudonym), to find out more meaning about the rationale behind his everyday teaching practices. According to Marshall and Rossman (2010), “because thoughts, feelings, beliefs, values, and assumptions are involved, the researcher needs to understand the deeper perspective that can be captured through face-to-face interactions” (p.
Holistic teaching focuses on preparing the learner to meet any challenges they may face in life and within a work setting. They can learn about themselves, develop resilience and develop social and emotional development. A learner who feels confident and valued will be more able to absorb new knowledge and apply to real work settings and is more likely to continue their studies when they see it affecting them in a meaningful way. If as an assessor you are mindful to the learner as an individual and take into account their learning style and abilities it aids you in tailoring your teaching manner and methods that give all the best chance of success. It is good to show they are being stretched and challenged and evidence this in their feedback to aid their professional
For example, a child’s language skills may develop further through a teacher ‘modelling’ the way in which certain words should be used and pronounced, and the child absorbing the information via the teacher’s use of the language, and the child then using the new language skills correctly in the same or a different context. Another important part of Vgotsky’s theory is scaffolding which is extremely important for children with SEN. In scaffolding support is given to children until they develop unto being able to carry out activities and attain a level of independence and knowledge. The scaffolds or support is removed gradually piece by piece. Example is how the scaffolds of a house are removed gradually until the completion of the house when it doesn’t need them anymore.
The findings of Pessoa et. al. (2007) indicate that an effective content-based instruction class includes attention to both content and language through conversations that encourage student language use and development, as well as metalinguistic awareness by collaboratively negotiating form and by the teacher’s
We will search in dictionaries and it reveals that learning is “acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience or instruction.” An educational psychologist would define learning even more succinctly as “a change in an individual caused by experience” (Slavin, 2003, p. 138). Teaching which is implied in the first definition of learning, may be defined as “showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand.” Teaching cannot be defined apart from learning. Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning which enabling learner learns will determine your philosophy of education, your teaching style, your approach, methods and classroom techniques (Brown, H.G., 2007, p. 7-8). 2. FACTORS INFLUENCING LEARNING OF LEARNER DIVERSITY In Malaysia, students between the ages of 5 to 18 years are expected to learn in school with a heavy expectation on their shoulder.
This means that the teacher of second language learners has to have more patience and also creativity to create interesting opportunities for learners to practise new skills without losing interest. The specific application of scaffolding and support during teaching second language learning would differ according to the ability and specific needs of the learners in each individual classroom. Walqui (2006:165) does however set out specific features that are involved and which are used when planning scaffolding and support. These features will be discussed in
Need for knowledge or the need to process and internalize exploration and experience results that could assist in problems solving. 3. Need for ego improvement or the search for self-knowledge driven by the desire to be accepted and approved by others. When analyzing the development of a foreign language in the learning process, the different learning style of the students need to be taken into account. It’s also important to remember that intrinsic motivation aids students’ learning and that the quality of classroom interaction matters a great deal.