Massachusetts Stove Company return on Common equity ratio has fluctuated from 224% in year 3 all the way 32.6% in year 7. This change occurred because of the companies change in capital structure leverage. The reduction in the company's long-term debt and reduction in their deficit of retained earnings reduced their capital leverage, but this does not mean they are less profitable. Massachusetts Stove Company maintained a stable profit margin for ROCE from year 3 to year 7 and still saw increases in their net income. Over the past five years, the company has strategically crafted a niche market that is difficult for competitors to enter.
11, 12 How¬ever, Post-natal depression (PND) is diagnosed in only 50% of the women with prominent symptoms during first year after delivery. On the contrary, untreated PND can cause chronic depression and interferes in mother child bonding and even to the extent of suicide as well as infanticide in rare cases.13 However, it is important to distinguish PND from the “baby blues” that occurs be¬tween three and 10 days after giving birth; and “Post¬natal psychosis” which affects one in 500 women in the first week or so after child birth.4 The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the burden of postpartum depression in a group of Indian women attending a tertiary care teaching hospital using EPDS
Adolescent and Adult Gut Microbiota The gut microbiota acquired as an infant shapes the diversity of the microbiome into adulthood(6). Human gut microbiota begins developing into an adult-like composition within three years after birth. The interpersonal differences in gut microbiota is greater among children and adolescents than in adults, but the diversity of gut microbiota is observed to be greater in adults than children. For example, phylotypes belonging to Bifidobacterium significantly declined with age, which had previously dominated the infant gut flora, while the overall operational taxonomic unit (OTU), observed in children and adults, increases with age. The difference or similarities between the gut microbiota data does not support a strong genetic inheritability, as
Usually, depending on the severity, mild fluorosis creates white and opaque spotting on the teeth, later turning into yellow and brown in color, if moderate or severe. In an observational study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCHS), there has been a 20.1% increase of dental fluorosis in adolescents, ages 12-15, in fluoridated communities over a span 15 years (Beltrán-Aguilar). In consuming fluoride it not only causes dental fluorosis, but it can also cause skeletal fluorosis, a bone disease which causes painful damage to bones, joints, and limbs (Peckham and Awofeso). The systemic ingestion of fluoride does not provide any benefit towards the body. In adding such treatments to public water, it causes a buildup of fluoride to start at an early age, causing harm to developing children.
Breast feeding and recurrent pneumonia In developing countries, the incidence and mortality rate of childhood pneumonia are 10 times higher than in developed countries.  Malnutrition is thought to be the underlying cause of approximately half of the fatal acute lower respiratory tract infections. Nutritional determinants of the global acute lower respiratory infection disease burden in children less than 5 years old is a lack of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months. [6,7] Hence in our study we will investigate if there’s any relevant correlation between breast feeding in patients with recurrent
These are: Reduction of urinary tract infections; according to a research done by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), circumcisions of males would reduce the chance of getting a urinary tract infection (UTI). The research studied 422,328 infants born in army facilities over a 10 year period. A UTI occurred in 3,129 (0,43%) infants during their first year of life. The number of uncircumcised infants who suffered from a UTI was tenfold greater than the number of circumcised infants. This clearly shows that the number of infants who had a UTI and were circumcised was way smaller than the uncircumcised infants.
Let’s begin with how vaccinations have decreased the annual rates of our diseased, dead, and disabled. When an individual gets vaccinated, they not only protect themselves from getting sick, but they protect the people around them as well. Take measles for instance. The measles vaccine was introduced in 1963. According to the CDC, “Measles incidence and deaths began to decline in 1965 and continued a 33-year downward trend” (CDC, 2010, para.
INTRODUCTION Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage is the main type of cerebral hemorrhage, the second most common cause of stroke after the ischemic stroke (1). Its incidence increases with age, with people over 85 years having up to 10 times the risk of having a brain hemorrhage compared to those between 45 and 54 years (2). With increasing of life expectancy, an increase in the incidence of stroke is likely to occur, particularly in developing countries such as those from Latin America (3,4). Although the incidence of stroke in developed countries has reduced by 42% over the past four decades, this reduction is most likely due to decrease in the incidence of the ischemic form (1), so that a recent meta-analysis failed to demonstrate changes in the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage between 1980 and 2006 (5). The overall incidence of cerebral hemorrhage in this study was 24.6 per 100,000 people per year (19.7-30.7, 95% CI), but data from Latin America were limited.
The main argument of Laura Dean-Mooney is that the 21 law saves lives because the number of people killed in crashes since the law was enacted has been cut in half. The number of crashes “ has been cut in half, from more than 5,000 individuals in the early 1980s to around 2,000 in 2005”(Dean Mooney 5). Another argument made was that the effects of alcohol are magnified when a teenager’s brain is still developing, “alcohol negatively affects all parts of the brain, include cognitive and decision-making abilities as well as coordination and memory”(Dean-Mooney 9). Dean-Mooney implies that since the legal drinking age has been 21, this law is the most studied in history. She highlights that scientific studies found the 21-year-old law saves lives on and off the road.
As Levitt (2004) stated “those over the age of 65 experience victimization rates for serious violent crime that are less than one-tenth of those of teenagers” (p. 171) and since the young population got older, the crime followed in trend. Disagreements One of Levitt’s main four causes of the 1990s crime was the legalization of abortion in the 1970s. Levitt argued that unwanted children were at higher risk for crime and the legalization of abortion reduced the number of unwanted children. His hypothesis was brought about because “the five states that allowed abortion in 1970… experienced declines in crime rates earlier than the rest of the country” (Levitt, 2004, p. 182). His statistics are compelling, but the reasoning seems slightly irrelevant, as argued by Baumer and
Fifth Disease, Pediatric Fifth disease is a viral infection that causes mild cold-like symptoms and a rash. It is more common in children than adults. For most children, fifth disease is not a serious infection. Symptoms usually go away in 7–10 days, though the rash may last a bit longer. Children who have had fifth disease are not likely to get it again.
The New York Times revealed five infant deaths related to whooping cough and all under the age of three months old. These infants were not vaccinated against pertussis, which meant they had higher risk of disease exposures (New York Times). Pertussis is a preventable disease, if the child gets vaccinated. It’s been five year since the death of the five infants in California, but cases of whooping cough climbs each year due to refusal of vaccination. Vaccination should be required for all children enter school or daycare facilities because the risk of exposures is way higher than the side effects of a vaccine.
The number of fatal and severe TBIs has been declining because of improved safety laws, standards in automobiles, an increased public education on prevention of TBI. In the US there are more than 5.3 million survivors of traumatic brain injury and more than 1.7 million people sustain a new TBI every year. Three percent are fatal, 16.3 percent require hospitalization, and 80.7 are treated and released from the emergency room. An estimated 3.2 million Americans are living with impairments after being hospitalized by a TBI (Early,2006). I will know introduced you to Ingrid, who had a Traumatic Brain
According to Ron Dagan, acute otitis media (middle ear infection) are most common in kids 3 months old to 3 years old. (Dagan p. 1). In Clinical Bacteriology of Recurrent Otitis Media with Effusion, it states, “antibiotic resistance has increased due to indiscriminate overuse and misuse of antibiotics.” The overuse of an antibiotic and/or using the wrong antibiotic to treat the sickness has made bacteria more resistant to the antibiotics. Later on in the passage, Dagan adds, “we collected nine hundred middle ear fluid samples for six hundred fifty four pediatric patients who underwent ventilation tube insertion due to OME…” “Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the two groups differed in sensitivity to penicillin and erythromycin, but no other antibiotics.” (Article abstract).Out of the nine hundred samples they took, the group showed the bacteria was defeated by the antibiotic penicillin and the antibiotic erythromycin but the other antibiotics didn’t touch the bacteria. The experiment showed people only two antibiotics were fighting off the bacteria.