Early Learning Theory

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Additional Theories 1. Groundings Relating to Students’ Early Reading Ability Socio-cultural theory is well-known as the grounding of early reading ability. Lev Semenovich Vygotsky is the one who proposed this theory. Vygotsky believes that the culture is supported by cultural tools (Santrock, 2009: 86). Such tools serve as the media for developing high-level of mental processes, such as one’s understanding and problem-solving attempts. Some of the cultural tools are namely languages, signs, and symbols. This resonates with Piaget’s cognitive theory of early reading. In the age of 6 to 7 years, a child is in the pre-operational concrete cognitive stage (Harley, 2001: 221). The child is in a stage in which he or she is aware of symbols and…show more content…
First, one is required to pay attention to the information that the person wants to recall; this process is also well-known as perception. Second, the person must be in a conscious state to receive an information. Furthermore, the first process occurs in a person’s brain by giving the meaning towards the information received by the sensory memory. The perception accepted is based on the prior knowledge regarding a particular information (Woolfolk, 2007:251). During learning, Gagne (as cited in Smith, 2009: 125 ) argues that giving attention is to be conducted firstly. There are several methods to enhance students’ focus by presenting something unique during the class, such as using multi-sensory method. Through giving the students a pleasure in learning will ease the process of storing the information in their…show more content…
The role of a person is not only as a human being but also spiritual and social being. This is in line with a notion that every person is not the same. Characteristics of diversity in people are reflected from aspects, e.g., sex, gender, talents, and intelligence. In regards to such a tenet, Woolfolk proposes that every child is different, this includes their performance, learning speed, and the learning method (Woolfolk, 2007: 114). By that, the characteristics of children’s visual-spatial intelligence, especially children aged 6 to 7 years or primary students, can be classified into two: a high and low visual-spatial intelligence (Creswell, 2012: 311). 7. The Correlation of School Readiness with Early Reading Ability Theory of readiness grounds from the law of readiness by Thorndike. This concept is often called as stimulus-response theory (Hergenhanh & Henley, 2013: 359). It is believed that the basis of learning is the association between a stimulus (S) and response (R). The stimulus will transfer an impression to human’s senses and the response will drive a person to do an action. This interrelation is called as connection which then is well-known as connectionism
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