The relationship between affective and learning strategies is unclear, but positive emotional environment helps learning in general. The teacher can play an active role in the development and use of affective strategies by building a generally positive atmosphere in the classroom. This can happen to encourage and advise students to help them identify achievable goals and to work independent learning through personalization and activities by working in pairs and in groups. Examples Lower amounts of anxiety with relaxation techniques is a kind of affective strategy.
For biological factor, Noam Chomsky proposed a nativist theory of language development which regards the biological existence of Language Acquisition Device (LAD). Language acquisition device allowed the children to consistently combine words and understand the information they hear after they acquired sufficient vocabulary (Berk, 2012). The idea of language acquisition device the ability of language learning that already implanted in children mind (as cited in Department of Education and Training, 2006). Scientifically, left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex plays a vital role in language development. For example, grammatical processing and language production are supported by Broca’s area which located in the left-frontal lobe; and word meaning comprehension is supported by Wernicke’s area that located in the left temporal lobe.
In this approach, the designer selects what is significant for the learner to know and recognize, and tries to transfer that knowledge to the learner. Cognitivists consider learners develop learning through receiving, storing, and retrieving information. Through this idea, it is important for instructional designers or developers to carefully analyze
Self-regulated learning is in parallel with constructivist view of learning and teaching in that it puts learner at the epicenter of learning and construction of knowledge and, hence, it merits more heed in contemporary education. Constructivism underscores the importance of individual self in building meaning (Vygotsky, 1978). Learners act as an umpire of feeding inlet of knowledge to
Other theories which underpins authentic assessment is Experiential Learning Theory by David Kolb and Situated Learning Theory which was theorized by Lave and Wenger. Experiential learning occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Concrete experiences provide the information that serves as a basis for reflection. On the other hand, Situated Learning Theory is learning in the same contexts in which concepts and theories are applied. Research has shown that real-life applied activities and problem-solving activities establish a contextual setting for many lessons, providing motivation and encouraging curiosity.
2. Literature Review 2.1 The Development of Attribution Theory The attribution theory is one of the newly developed learning motivation theories. From the literal meaning, the attribution theory can be understood as the processing of attributing the consequences of acts or events to some causes.
Early literacy plays a central role in making the kind of knowledge possible with early learning and experiences linked to academic achievements. Even though, it includes academic features to perform the process in acquiring skills; the emergence is considered most crucial. To be more precise, “children’s use of signs, symbols and modalities is not arbitrary, but is structured and reflects strategic choices by them to represent things that are important to them” (Kress, 1997, p.9). He emphasizes that children learn best at discovering and contemplating to interpret their findings, which represents their curiosity to learn and experience. Likewise, the language development in early years portrays the process of becoming; acquiring, improving
Cognitive perspectives imply that mutual interaction between students with “the mental processing of the information rather than with motivations” (Slavin, 1996 : 48) will improve students’ academic achievement. The two perspectives, namely, cognitive development and elaboration are discussed in the following paragraphs to examine comprehensively their effects on student learning. The two cognitive perspectives explained in the following paragraphs focus on the interactions among groups of students, holding that these interactions themselves lead to better learning and thus better achievement. 3. Cognitive Developmental Perspective : A fundamental assumption of the cognitive development perspective driven by theories is that reciprocal interaction among children around suitable academic tasks creates growth in the knowledge of concepts and critical skills (Slavin, 2011).
There is the analogous relation between the two major approaches to learning and reflective thinking practice (Leung & Kember, 2003; Phan, 2007).This intertwined relationship is, again, pivotal to the cultivation and encouragement of quality learning in higher education contexts. Pedagogical strategies and learning objectives that entail complexities in this sense stimulate intellectual curiosity and positive perceptions of task value, facilitating in this process engagement of meaningful learning and deep learning strategies (Kember et al., 2000). In this study, students’ learning is key aspects of investigation in understanding quality in students’ learning. Especially from a phenomenographic perspective, how students approach learning is a key issue in examining qualitative
Behaviorist psychology had a significant effect on the teaching and learning principles of audio-lingual method. In Audiolingualism, the underlying theory of learning is behaviorist. Stimulus, response, and reinforcement are the main components of Behaviorism. When we adjust it to language learning; the stimulus is the information about foreign language, the response is student’s reaction on the presented material, and the reinforcement is natural “self-satisfaction of target language use (Richards & Rodgers, 1987). At the same time, foreign language learning from this perspective is a matter of automatic habit formation.
The cognitive theory focuses on how people learn from the processing of information. It discusses the concept such as memory, problem-solving as well as decision-making. Like behaviourists, they observed actions empirically to make interpretations about the internal mental progression (Yilmaz, 2011). According to Kuljis & Lui (2005) and Taylor et al. (2000), focus on arguments on how student learn large volumes of meaningful information by exposing them to a verbal teaching method.