Although the report released by Lawson provided insight about earthquake occurrence, it cannot help scientists and geologists to accurately predict when the next earthquake will occur. However, with advanced monitoring systems and computing power may help in better preparation of future earthquakes. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake brought geologists and scientists together and led to an understanding of earthquakes; how they occur, why they occur and how the world can prevent and manage such disasters in
Seismic performance evaluation of setback buildings using nonlinear static and dynamic methods Shibajee Sutar1, Lipika Halder2* Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, India, 799046 email@example.com 2*Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, India, 799046 firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: Three ten-storey reinforced concrete framed buildings comprising of one regular in elevation and two setbacks at different level are considered in this study to address the seismic response of vertically irregular buildings. Both inelastic static and dynamic analysis are performed considering three different load patterns and an ensemble of 4
2.1 General Seismic evaluation and retrofitting strategies are mainly focused in this thesis. However, there are many good references that can be used as a starting point for research such as ATC40 manual for seismic evaluation and retrofitting of concrete buildings. This chapter focuses on recent contributions related to seismic evaluation and various retrofitting schemes and past efforts most closely related to the needs of the present work. For, the purpose of the present investigation, the literature is break down into following areas: a) Seismic evaluation. b) Retrofitting strategies.
4. The influence of Aswan Reservoir Loading on Earthquake Activity The change in level of any lake is controlled by the difference between the sources of inflow and outflow, compared to the total volume of the lake. One of the factors that have been observed to have a significant effect on the rate of seismicity at reservoirs is the way in which the water level changes in the reservoir  and . Variations in filling rate are strongly influenced by the type of utilization of the reservoir, local climatic conditions, and topography. In addition to the importance of water level changes the steady- state utilization of the reservoir, the pattern of reservoir filling from first impoundment to maximum capacity is important in terms of triggered seismicity.
Among those hazards, liquefaction is categorized as a unique phenomenon that rarely happens. According to Kramer , liquefaction may happen under earthquake shaking with the minimum earthquake magnitude of 5 Mw and PGA (peak ground acceleration) value of 0.1g . Since the seismic activities increased during the last decade, Several Indonesian researchers had studied the liquefaction phenomena in particular areas. They were Hakam , Misliniyati et al. , Monalisa , and Mase et al.
The hasty emancipation of energy generates seismic waves that surges throughout the earth. Researchers use the diverse speeds of seismic waves to pinpoint the epicenter (the point on the surface directly above where the tremor initiated) of earthquakes. Seismometers are used to measure the magnitude of earthquakes. It is improbable to undergo the enormousness of a level three earthquake. The damage caused by earthquakes also depends on their depth and fault type.
The important aspects of the wind-bridge interaction were investigated considering the aerodynamic phenomena affecting the different parts of the bridge (mainly deck and towers). The global bridge finite element method was used to calculate the bridge natural frequencies, which were fundamental for the analysis of the bridge response to the wind action. The experimental doings and results were proposed in the framework of a synergic approach between numerical and experimental approaches that represents the common practice in defining the full scale aero-elastic performance of the bridge starting from scaled reproduction of the wind-bridge interaction. The Static and dynamic wind loads, aero-elastic stability and vortex induced vibrations had been
The scale ranges from 0 to XII and it is based on physical reports that the surrounding experienced or people felt. On the following picture 5 we can see how is the size of the earthquake determined through the physical experiences. I. Instrumental Not felt by many II. Weak Felt only by few people at higher floors in buildings; delicate objects may swing III.
2 Figure 2 2 : Liquefaction in action 2 Figure 2 3:Coseismal surface fault 2 Figure 2 4:tusnami, japan, 2011 3 Figure 2 5The Earth’s layers (strata) shown to scale. Credit: pubs.usgs.gov 3 Figure 2 6:The boiling point of water is 100 ℃ Jody Dole/Getty Images 3 Figure 2 7:The Earth's layers Credit: discovermagazine.com 3 Figure 2-8:Tectonic plate boundaries 4 Figure 3 1: surface waves copyright © 2002 published by Houghton Mifflin 5 Figure 3 2:Kinemetrics seismograph is formerly used by United States Department of the Interior. 5 Figure 4 1:Seismic Hazard Map and Seismic Zone Factor. (Source ESSEC, USAID-MERC (M18-057), Project) 6 Figure 4 2:Earthquake Preparedness Plans and Kits 8 Figure 5 1: For design in various ground 10 ABSTRACT Your life is important to us, so we try to look to reduce the effects of these problems that abolish your comfort, including earthquakes, which result in the waves caused by moving the rocks in the ground to reach us and to our facilities. So, the aim of this paper to search for these waves and analyzed it to know when the earthquake will come and how its strength by seismograph device, and how our structure can withstand for deflection of these forces and restrict them as much as possible to prevent it from collapsing so we will see the solutions that will link the elements of the structure with an iron
Role of IS code in seismic design According to the IS 456-2000, IS 1893 -2002, IS 13920 the safe design of building is done during the earthquake. For this the role of these code on the structure is determine. Is 456: 2000 This code provides the standard deals with the general structural use of Plain and reinforced concrete. This code gives the provision of reinforcement in structural member like beam, column and slab. And also gives the criteria of concrete grade to be provided Is 1893 (Part-1): 2002 This code considered the criteria for earthquake resistant design of structure.