Through the reverse transcription, the viral RNA is transcribed to viral double-stranded DNA. This process is catalyzed by an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, also known as reverse transcriptase, which is encoded by the viral genome, which is integrated within the cell genome by integrase. This protein cleaves nucleotides of each 3’ ends of the double helix DNA creating two sticky ends, transfers the modified provirus DNA into the cell nucleus and facilitates its integration into the host genome. The integration of proviral DNA and the expression of the provirus require that target cell is in an activated state. Monocytes/macrophages, microglial cells, and latently infected quiescent CD4+ T-cells contain integrated provirus and are important long-living cellular reservoirs of HIV.
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
During this stage, I will double check everything that occured in the S phase and make sure I did not make any mistakes. If I have made a mistake, I will immediately repair it. Metabolic changes that occur during this phase assemble the cytoplasmic materials necessary for the next two stages in the cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis. I will continue growing, producing new proteins, and preparing for division. At the end of G2, a second checkpoint, the G2 Checkpoint, will occur to determine if I can now proceed and enter into the next stage, mitosis.
Try to avoid mosquitos as much as you can. If you start feeling bad and getting symptoms, call your doctor as soon as possible. DO NOT WAIT! Make sure you get a vaccine if you travel to places like South America or Africa. Thanks for listening to me talk about Yellow Fever!
They work by utilizing a variety of substances to defend the human body against potentially deadly microorganisms (“Vaccine” 1). Vaccines operate by introducing a weakened version of the virus, or a strand of a protein from the bacteria into the immune system. In turn, this insertion causes the production of antibodies which help to fight the actual infection, by attacking the virus upon its entry into the body (“Vaccine” 1-2). Previously, vaccines revolved around observations that humans will develop an immunity to a disease they are exposed to, given they survive (“Vaccine 1). However, vaccinations are far
Lareina Chen Mr. Hayward 9A January 11th, 2017 Genetic Engineering Essay Genetic engineering is a powerful and dangerous technology. Sometimes called genetic modification, genetic engineering is the process of altering the DNA in an organism’s genome. Editing the sequence of nucleotides can sometimes lead to extreme harmful effects on the human race, while on the other hand generates huge benefits for society. While talking about Genetic engineering, it is carried out by CRISPR. CRISPR stands for “clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.” It can quickly twist most of the genes in any plant or animal.
Controls are necessary to avoid false positive or false negative results. Joana et al. (2010) reported the extraction and detection of DNA along with a complete industrial soybean oil processing chain to monitor the presence of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean. The amplification of soybean lectin gene by end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was achieved in all the steps of extraction and refining processes. The real-time PCR assays using specific probes confirmed all the results and proved that it is possible to detect and quantify GMOs in the fully refined soybean oil.
Zika is a virus that a person can catch if bitten by an infected mosquito. First seen in Africa about 70 years ago, the virus recently has spread throughout the world, particularly in tropical areas where certain types of mosquitoes live. The main problem with Zika is its effect on unborn babies. In pregnant women, the virus can cause miscarriage, stillborn babies, or babies with birth defects. One serious birth defect caused by Zika is microcephaly.
It has been clear that any person can catch chickenpox by the transmission of an infectious agent by another person by one or more of the following: needles, saliva, surfaces, sexual contact, blood transfusions, cough, mother to fetus, fecal-oral route and air. Therefore, you can resist the chickenpox infection and become immune to the virus after you have had chickenpox or the vaccine(6). In short, we should do our best to be away from infection and avoid infected
The World Health Organization in coordination with United Nations made strategies to stop all chains of transmission in the affected countries, prevent the spread of the disease to neighboring countries and to safely re-activate life-saving essential health services. The main objectives of these strategies were to stop transmission of the Ebola virus in affected countries, to prevent new outbreaks of the Ebola virus in new areas and countries, to safely reactivate essential health services and increase resilience, fast-track Ebola research and development and coordinate national and international Ebola response (WHO,
Pathogens are biological agents; generalized as single cellular microorganism that can vary from virus, fungi or bacteria they are commonly the first link to the chain of infection. Through several substrates and pathways these biological agents invade the host and procreate disrupting the normal physiology of the multi cellular organism, resulting in illness or disease. They are so adaptable they can affect unicellular organisms from biological kingdoms. There are thousands of different pathogens that have unique types of infection or parasitism. However they also have common traits, all successful pathogens access the host through several ways, in doing so invades the host defences allowing for replications and creating a permissive niche.
Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes. 2. How does DNA replicate itself? In order to replicate itself, DNA undergoes DNA replication, a process in which the DNA unwinds and splits in two. From that point on, new nucleotides are added to each of the original strands (A to T, C to G) until the result is two identical sequence copies of DNA.
Scientists have found a genetic mutation in people who have ancestors who contracted the plague during the outbreak in the 1440s and survived. This genetic mutation gives people immunity to the HIV virus. Ebola is also a concerning virus. It’s recent outbreak in Africa killed many people and caused other countries to put up travel precautions. Microorganism is not the only threat to our species.
Although the two viruses can cause permanent damage, they both have differences. ZEBOV has emerged into the human population throughout Africa. Not only has it infected humans, but has also caused massive die-offs of chimpanzees and gorillas. Experiences with Ebola Zaire are somewhat similar to the Marburg and Sudan virus that will be introduced later. “Ebola Zaire (EBO-Z) killed two hundred and eighty of the three hundred and eighteen people infected Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH) used the same needles with different patients.
Those who feel unobligated to taking the vaccine, and feel attacked in knowing that a vaccination is mandatory, should understand why there is a vaccination requirement. The information swayed me in choosing mandatory vaccinations, if you are able to. These vaccination requirements should be those that if spread, have serious and deadly consequences. That there is a “significant reduction in illness and death from vaccine-preventable diseases is testimony to how well they work” (Feemster). Like noted above, the measles is an example of this.