Methodology To test for the continuity of the wires, set the function selector of the VOM to ohmmeter (“x 1” or “x 10”). After this, connect the end of the wire to one probe, and the other end of the wire to another probe. Determine if the wire is whole by looking at the pointer. If the pointer kicks, then the wire is whole; however, if it does not kick, the wire is broken. Using the resistor color coding (see table 1), experimenter can determine the manufacturer’s rated value and tolerance of the three carbon resistors.
A sharp drop in reflected signal is observed at angle өres . Sensing Principle of SPR: Performance Parameters: The sensing principle of SPR sensors is based minimum reflectance For a given frequency of the light source and the dielectric constant of metal film one can determine the dielectric constant of the sensing layer adjacent to metal layer by knowing the value of the resonance angle . The resonance angle is determined by using angular interrogation method. The resonance angle is very sensitive to variation in the refractive index (or, dielectric constant) of the sensing layer. Increase in refractive index of the dielectric sensing layer increases the resonance angle.
DWT decomposes a signal into an approximate and detail coefficients. This is achieved by passing a signal through a low pass filter and a high pass filter. To analyse high frequency content, high pass filter is used and a low pass filter is used to analyse low frequency content in a signal. Signal resolution is changed by filtering operation. And upsampling and downsampling operations are performed on a signal to change a scale.
The measurement including from two devices were observed and recorded in Table 3 and Table 4 . For the reading from AC circuit by using oscilloscope, the peak-to-peak magnitude, period, and frequency of the signal was measured and recorded after a stable waves is obtained. TASK 3 : PHASE MEASUREMENT A series circuit was constructed by connecting a 100ɥF capasitor, 1 kohm resistor and a 4 kHz and 12Vpp function generator as shown in Figure 5 below. The voltages across resistor and capacitor were measured using digital multi-meter and recorded in the Table 7. The oscilloscope was set up to measure the voltage drops across the resistor and capacitor simultaneously.
The basic features which are common to all types of spectrometers are as follows:- Absorption instruments: Radiation from a white source is directed by some guiding device (lens) on to the sample, from which it passes through an analyzer(prism0 which selects the frequency reaching the detector at any given time. The signal from the latter passes to a recorder which is synchronized with the analyzer so as to produce a trace of absorbance as the frequency varies. Between the sample and the analyzer a modulator is placed. This device interrupts the radiation beam a certain number of times per second and its effect is to cause the detector to send an ac signal to the recorder with a fixed frequency of 10-1000 Hz rather than dc signal which would result from a steady uninterrupted beam. BLOCK DIAGRAM SHOWS THE INSTRUMENTS USED IN ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY 2.2 Signal to noise
It can also be derived from the impedances: VSWR = (1+ )/(1- ) Fig. 6.1.2 VSWR Plot for Antenna Configuration 1 6.1.3 Smith Plot: The scattering matrix is a mathematical construct that quantifies how RF energy propagates through a multi-port network. The S-matrix is what allows us to accurately describe the properties of incredibly complicated networks as simple "black boxes". For an RF signal incident on one port. The same is being shown here in the manner of Smith Plot.
Introduction A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) has various applications in communication systems. It is used in direct generation method of FM while in demodulation it is used in PLL method. Though other demodulation methods are also used like balanced slope detector, foster-seeley detector, ratio detector and slope detector but only PLL method has been described here because except the PLL method all other techniques require additional transformers . The input of VCO is m(t) which is taken as feedback from output of a low pass filter as shown in the Figure1. The frequency of VCO output will be varied w.r.t.
Radio is the radiation of electromagnetic energy through space. The biggest use of radio waves is to carry information, such as sound, by systematically changing some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio systems need a transmitter to change some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation, angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation).