In the ontological investigation of language, namely the classification of what makes language what it is. Many philosophers are fascinated by the nature of language. Some philosopher holds a view of essentialism that presupposes there is an identical and continuous universals essence, which can justify all human language. However, the objection to Essentialists’ approach to the study of language is that with such assumption of intrinsic properties of language exists, they have presupposed “language” as a constant real substance. Both Western philosopher Ferdinand de Saussure and Ludwig Wittgenstein have rejected the simplistic notion of the essence in explaining the nature of language, and suggest the similarities between languages are merely one side of the linguistic phenomenon.
To improve learning in higher education, the primary focus should be on engaging students in a process that best enhances their learning – a process that contains feedback on the effectiveness of their learning efforts. Education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience, the process and goal of education are one and the same thing. Dewey (1897) all learning is re-learning. Learning is best facilitated by a process that draws out the students’ beliefs and ideas about a topic so that they can be examined, tested and integrated with new, more refined ideas. Learning needs the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world.
The word ideology made its appearence in French as idéologie during the time of the French revolution by the philosopher by Destutt de Tracy. He called it his “science of idea”. The term “ideology” is widely being used in politics, social sciences and mass media. Ideology is a combination of “idea” (meaning; opinion) and logo (meaning; ground). An ideology is a form of social or political philosophy in which practical elements are as prominent as theoretical ones; it is a system of idea that aspires both to explain the word and to change it.
This will certainly affect academic performance especially that ESL classrooms nowadays tend to be constructivist in nature. Schulte (1996) presents constructivism as a linguistic and educational viewpoint where students are enabled to come to learning situations with a variety of knowledge, feelings, and skills already within them. Learners construct understanding by making sense of their experiences and fitting their own ideas into reality. Similar to the schema theory, it would be hard to interpret a text if both word and world knowledge are
All the innate and inner theories are having some flaws due to the empirical proofs, and the linguistic theories are not able to describe the language fully. But these provide sufficient knowledge to comprehend the hypothesis and to make solid researches to get the complete knowledge of the language. Communicative
The Direct Method suggests that there should be lots of verbal communication, no translation, random and spontaneous use of the target language and there should be little time given to grammar and syntactic structures (Lestari, P. Rahmi, A. 2011) The Natural/Communicative Approach The beginning of 1960s saw yet another method which was originally the brain child of Tray Terrall and Stephen Krashen. This approach focused on three main areas; aural comprehension, early speech comprehension and speech activities. Students demonstrate comprehension in the form of speech, this is normally after the initial silent period. To enable the student to produce the target language it is of paramount importance that the Affective filter is low (Bull, W 1999) Language-body conversations ‘Total Physical Response (TPR) The foundation for language body conversations are based on a physical response or action upon the student.
Eco-criticism by and large is concerned with the relationship between humans and the landscape. Early theories in literary studies focus on issues of class, race, gender, region as important criteria of critical analysis. The late twentieth century has woken up to a new threat: ecological disaster. Ecocriticism is the result of this new consciousness, that very soon, there will be nothing beautiful in nature to discourse about, unless we are careful. Ecocriticism is not a unitary theory.
Eclecticism Eclecticism is that not all style is characterized by set guideline but its sometime depends on permutation and combination to build your own style (Christopher Muscato,2018). The element is design in accordance to the existing structure and style and which can mix or blend and create a unique identity. A. The elements are in triangular form in cross section which will either be wrapped around or placed isolated in context to the existing bldg. B.
strategies that contribute to the development of the language system which the learner constructs and (which) aﬀect learning directly’’ (Rubin, 1987, p. 23). Oxford (1990) further defined language learning strategies as steps taking to facilitate the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of information. O’Mally and Chamot (1990) studies viewed learning strategies as “the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn or retain new information” (p. 1). The term ‘strategy’ in the context of language learning refers to a specific type of action on behavior reported to by a language learner in order to improve performance in both using an learning a language (Naiman , Frolich, Stem & Todesco 1978; Wenden & Rubin 1987; Oxford 1990). Good and successful learners can improve their learning process by exploiting the strategies and make the less effective students follow the same
The result of this study indicated that there was no statistically significant correlation between emotional intelligence and the students ' end of the term diploma degree. 2.2.3. Studies conducted on Language learning strategy use Many research studies have been done concerning the use of language learning strategy use, and the role that these strategies play in accomplishing a successful acquisition of foreign language. In a study conducted by Gerami and Madani (2011) the importance of learning strategies on language learning was investigated. The subjects of this study were 200 and the instrument employed was the Strategy Inventory of Language Learning developed by Oxford to determine the type of learning strategies and also frequency of strategy use.