Even a casual survey of literature down the ages reveals that ecology, though a new word and a new science, has been an ancient theme in literary works. A great deal of literature has dealt explicitly with nature, either to express an aesthetic appreciation of its beauty or to explore the man-nature relationship. Michael Branch in “Ecocriticism: The Nature of Nature in Literary Theory and Practice,” points out that literature has struggled with questions of value comparable to those being asked by ecophilosophy. Questions about the proper role of humans in the cosmic scheme have always engaged the literary imagination, and concerns about maintaining or restoring a right relationship with nature are both thematically and symbolically present in the literature of every culture. Thus literature has always conditioned our philosophical understanding of nature.
Eddie of Arthur Miller’s A View from the Bridge is a Modern Tragic Hero Anam Sheikh MA-II Student, LVH College Panchavati, Nashik-3. Abstract: Tragedy has always been considered as a highest form of literature as compare to comedy. Tragic hero, since the birth of the Tragedy, has remained unchanged, but in the Twentieth century the modern playwrights gave us a new kind of Tragic Hero, which we could call as Modern Tragic Hero. Keywords: Tragedy, Tragic Hero, Modern Tragic Hero. Introduction: Tragedy, though a part of drama, has played a vital
This essay will reveal the conflicts between man, woman and nature from the perspective of Ecofeminism and advocates building a kind of harmonious relationship between human beings and nature. Ecofeminism is the combination of ecology and feminism, which concerns the relation between nature and female. It pays attention to the Gender discrimination, the control of natural species, racism, sexism, and other social inequalities. The theory of Ecofeminism against the ideas that human is the center of the world and the logic of domination in men’ s relation with women and nature. As a new theory, it is difficult to make a definition of Ecofeminism because it has many different aspects.
Nature and literature goes hand in hand. The world of literature throngs with works dealing with beauty and power of nature. However, the concern for ecology and the hazard that the incessant exploitation of our environment poses on humanity has recently caught the attention of the writers. This sense of concern has given rise to a new branch of literary theory, namely Eco-criticism. Ecocriticism is the study of representations of nature in literary works and of the relationship between literature and the environment.
William Shakespeare was a poet and a playwright, generally regarded as one of the world’s most famous playwrights to ever live. Shakespeare lived during the 16th centruy, and during his time, he wrote 37 different plays and 144 sonnets. Those plays included mainly comedies and tragedies. One of Shakespeare’s most orignial plays was a comedy known as The Tempest. The Tempest is one of Shakespeare’s most original plays due to the fact that he had no outside influence or collaboration when creating the story.
Shakespeare is very important to the world of literature. He came from a family where his father served as bailiff, the highest elected official, equivalent to a modern day mayor. He poked fun at the rich by writing for the poor. His works are known today as famous works of literature still to this day. Shakespeare’s unintentionally was a revolutionary who made it so everyone could get an education.
Thus the ecological criticism deconstructs the relationship between nature, culture and literature. The term ‘literary ecology’ was first introduced by J.William Meeker, which refers to “the study of biological themes and relationships which appear in literary works. It is simultaneously an attempt to discover what roles have been played by literature in the ecology of human species”. He further says that ecology is an ancient theme in art and literature. He says that the physical world can be divided into two
S.T Coleridge refers to Shakespeare’s swan song, The Tempest, as a play “for all ages,” and this quote rings true in the light of the fascinating study of the presentation of Prospero, the play’s protagonist. Prospero’s complexity stands out against the binary archetypes of Jacobean drama, and this great wizard not only teaches the audience about accepting humanity, but embracing it. He reveals a reflection of the Bard himself, as well as that of our very being. To quote Gooder, Prospero “could give God a good fight.” The audience instantly gets a sense of the extent of Prospero’s power through the tempest that he casts in Act 1 Scene 1. Ferdinand’s cry of “Hell is empty and all the devils are here” clearly illustrates the psychological destruction that Propsero’s art can carry.
In Cherlly Glotfelty, in her edited The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology work with Harold Fromm explained it as a study of the relationship between literature and environment such as the study of literature and other social theories like feminism, Marxism, etc. After the foundation of the theory, it drew the attention of many scholars around the world. The primary concern of the relationship between literature and environment has remained the same as defined by Cheryll Glotfelty. Today, ecocriticism has been perceived as a theory of a literary movement to ameliorate the condition of the environment on the planet earth through literary consciousness. Polluted rivers, landscape, and air have made every government and individual responsible for the cause.
Magnifico It is clear that Naturalism is a literary genre that started as a literary movement in late nineteenth century in literature, film, theater and art. It is basically a type of extreme realism. Generally, naturalistic works expose dark sides of life such as prejudice, racism, poverty, prostitution, filth and disease, etc. Since these works are often pessimistic and blunt, they receive heavy criticism. Despite the echoing pessimism in this literary output, naturalists are generally concerned with improving human condition around the world.