Ecocriticism is one of the significant theories in literature which helps to understand the relationship between literature and physical environment. The interpretation of ecocriticism or environmental criticism takes different shape in American literature and British literature. In the name of ‘ecocriticism’ American literature celebrates nature whereas British Literature on the other used the term ‘green studies’ to focuses on the threats and dangers of nature. Anthropocentricism is the philosophical view of nature from human-centered by rejecting
Furthermore, there is a concept of Environmental sociology. Environmental Sociology is a branch of sociology and deals with interaction between the human society and the environment. It further focuses on the affects of humans on the environment and vice-versa and tries to solve the issues that emerge between the two. Many sociologists started with the study of environmental issues only after having an idea in sociological areas and social movements. This further implies that the base of environmental studies comes with the help of sociology and related concepts.
As the world went into Anthropocene, the disscussion of the relationship between human and natural became more frequnt than in before. Human being and the inviroment are not isolation based on the theory of Anthropocene, ont he opposite, they art related and effect each other. Mmany authors write literature article based on this new-coming topic, and showed their special undestanding towards it. For example, the novel that written by Lester Rowntree nanmed as “Collecting Myself” is one of these articles. When first get in touch with this essay, the topic became a hook for audiences.
Key Words: environment,development ,degradation,west From prehistory, literature has been used for the representation of physical environment and human-environment relationship. Literature and environment studies—generally called “Ecocriticism” focuses on the environmental aspects of literature. The collaborative enquiry of literature and environmentbegins from the conviction that creative writing by virtue of its eloquence and expressiveness , narrative , and quality of images can convincingly help to discern the environmental complications prominent in the present-day world.
It also shows that the text is diverse and disparate and its growth is based on certain events, some of which are actual, either from past or the present .such reading is eclectic and diverse and is not bound by a single problem instead, has a sort openness and methodological balance which does not restrict it like other theories do. Ecocriticism is such a diverse sphere, that it does not seem to have dominance of a single person. In this case, ‘pathetic fallacy’ comes into the picture which talks about the tendency of human instincts that leads us to see emotions in our surroundings and nature. Emerson too was once quoted saying: ‘Nature always wears the colours of the spirit.’ The ecocentric reading, unlike other approaches pays more attention to what is on the outside and uses idea of symbiosis and energy. Ecocritical reading also brings forth the idea of binaries in the nature and helps incorporate the problems of humanity and
It should be considered that modern architecture movements have had a fundamental role in the formation of environment psychological science. Criticisms on boring and crime-potential spaces in modern residential complex or even cities can be known as the origins of necessary attention to human needs of the desirable environment. Most researchers take into account Brunswik, Levin and Gifford as the founders of this field. Brunswik (1943) used the term environmental psychology for the first time. It should be noted that Hellpach (1902) has been known as the founder of environmental psychology in German sources (Mortazavi, 1380).
In doing so, it increases the chances for health and longevity of older people. To understand ageism from an ecological view, it is important to understand its definitions in microsystem levels within organizations. The ecological view places emphasis on patterns of functioning and prolonged existence when the place, gender, and socioeconomic status come into
Eco critical study or “ecocriticism takes as its subject the interconnections between nature and culture” (Glotfelty xix). Without a clear distinction between nature and culture, without understanding the relationship between human non‐human we cannot understand and save the ‘natural world’. By ‘natural world’ I mean, the co-existence of the living and the non- living organisms. William Rueckert makes a comment on anthropocentric world perception that “man’s tragic flaw is his anthropocentric (as opposed to biocentric) vision, and his compulsion to conquer, humanizes, domesticate, violate, and exploit every natural thing (113). Anthropocentrism as human flaw has ruined the beautiful globe.
For a better understanding of waves of ecocriticism, I turn to Lawrance Buell. In his article, “The Future of Environmental Criticism” (2005), Lawrence Buell states that “first-wave” ecocriticism emerged as a reaction against the structuralist and poststructuralist movement which was dominant in 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Structuralism supported that language creates reality, however, first-wave ecocritics believed that there is a natural world beyond the language. That’s why, representations of nature in texts such as Henry David Thoreau’s Walden (1854) and Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire (1968) show the importance of natural world which exists beyond the
Nevertheless, since the creation of the “Association for the Study of Environment and Literature” (ASLE) in 1992 and the birth of the journal ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment a year later (Glotfelty xviii), it has become ever more complex and has given birth to new stances. In parallel, it has also expanded geographically: born in the United States in the wake of the environmental crisis, it is by now implanted in many countries such as the United Kingdom, Japan or Korea where ASLE is present (Branch and Slovic xv). Due to this growing diversity and complexity, it is quite difficult today to give a single definition of ecocriticism, especially considering that even the denomination in itself was the subject of many debates (Glotfelty xx). Some objected to the term, claiming that it came “associated with a particular set of political and social agendas” (Cook n. pag.)