Ecofeminism Theory

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This chapter presents a review of the ecofeminist theory: the history of man alienation from women and nature, the basis for the association between women and nature. Different feminist perspectives prior to the theory of ecofeminism and how they handled the mutual relationship between women and nature and how this led to the emergence of the theory of ecofeminism. Some of the important terms in the theory of ecofeminism, ecofeminism and deep ecology, ecofeminism and the feminine principle, characterization of ecofeminist philosophy, ecofeminism and the sense of place, and finally ecofeminism and the division within the theory itself.
During the last centuries, and especially after the emergence of the Industrial Revolution, a degradation
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Supported by the Cartesian and Baconian views, a rift between humans and their nature has happened. This rift was widened and deepened by the European colonization of different parts of the ancient world (Africa, Asia) and the discovery of the new world (the Americas, Australia). This Western colonization process initiated the idea of superiority of man over nonhuman nature and women. This idea of anthropocentrism that led to androcentrism kept spreading, supported by patriarchy, and eventually led to the split between humans and nature. The idea of the 'self ' and 'other ' was inferred.
In order to legitimize the exploitation of nature and its elements, without a limit, theories were made to deepen the separation between the white man (the self) and the nature and the indigenous people living upon its laws (the other). This division was supported by such theories as the Cartesian theory, existentialism, ideas of Francis Bacon, and the idea of the white-man 's burden. A dichotomy of human, male, white, cultural polarized animal, female, colored,
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Of these theories are Feminism, Ecology, and Environmentalism. However, each of these theories dealt with only one form of exploitation and tried to fight against it without giving the due consideration of other co-exploited elements, which made these theories unable to solve the problems they suffered from. For instance, Feminism dealt with the inferiority of the females and the injustices they endured. However, they failed to consider the fellow-sufferer environment and the exploitation it suffered from. The situation with Environmentalism is not different. Its supporters dealt with natural abuse without paying the slightest attention to the females and their
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