Mangroves “are specialised wetlands that occur on or near the coast, where rivers pour their fresh water into the sea. Mangroves grow where there is a mixture of fresh and salt water. The trees and other plants have specialized roots that can survive immersion in seawater at high tide and exposure and drying at low tide.”(Navindra Ramsaroop, 2003). Mangroves provide habitats for many species of sea life, serve as a spawning ground and nursery for fishes and are important for the maintenance of commercial fisheries in the Caribbean. Firstly, mangroves protect the shoreline from erosion they are also important in filtering and slowly releasing sediments from the land into the sea.
Mangroves Where do they form? - In tropical and subtropical areas, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S - Shrubs and tree species that live along shores, rivers and estuaries. - Most live on muddy soil, some on sand, peat and coral rock. - Can live in water 100 saltier than other plants’ tolerance. Characteristics of Mangroves - Cope with salt: Saltwater can kill plants, so mangroves must extract freshwater from the seawater that surrounds them.
Mangroves of Sundarban and Their Management Tactics What is Mangroves? A mangrove is a tree, shrub, palm or ground fern, generally exceeding one half metre in height, that normally grows above mean sea level in the intertidal zone of marine coastal environments and estuarine margins. A mangrove is also the tidal habitat comprising such trees and shrubs. e.g. Rhizophora species & Avicennia species.
It is done through a process of rhizofiltration and the microorganisms that can break down such pollutants thrive in these environments, they use enzyme to break down and make stable the potentially dangerous substance thus treating the effluent that runs through the mangrove system (Conroy, 2002). The mangroves also act as natural buffer zone between the land and the water because it reduces the wind and wave action in shallow coastal areas. Provide protection by dispersing the force of strong waves, tidal currents, tidal storm, storm surges, flood and typhoons that have been built up on the open waters, acting as a natural coastal defense mechanism for thousands of coastal areas and shoreline communities around the world. Mangroves are dense barrier against storm and tsunamis, saving lives and protecting property (Ocean Portal Team,
Mangroves are marine tidal forest and they are most luxuriant around the mouth of large river, along cost-line are found mainly in tropical and subtropical countries where annual rainfall is fairly high. The plant usually adapted to anaerobic conditions of both saline and fresh water and saline environment. They produce aerial root (Pneumatophore) which projects above the mud and water in order to absorb oxygen. Mangrove plants are known to tolerate extreme environmental condition. A halophyte is a plant which naturally grows where it affected by salinity in the root area or by salt-spray in semi-deserts, mangrove swamps marshes and sea-shore.
Background Mangroves help stabilize lives in significant ways. For example, mangroves are healthy fisheries, providing refuges and nurseries for the marine, and protecting them from erosion and natural disasters such as tropical storms or tidal waves. However, the conversion of coastal lands for development of charcoal production, tourism, or the controversial practice of shrimp aquaculture has been a significant loss cause in much of Asia, particularly in Thailand. From 1975 to 1993, according to a recent report by UNEP, it is presumed that about half of Thailand’s mangroves have been lost. Trang is one of 76 provinces located in the middle of southern Thailand, with 190 kilometers of coastline along the Andaman Sea.
2015) and insect herbivores (Castagneyrol et al, 2014). Gamfeldt et al. (2013) stated that tree species richness in boreal and temperate forests was positively affected by multiple ecosystem functions, such as tree growth, topsoil carbon storage, berry production, game production potential, the presence of deadwood and biodiversity in the understory. Therefore, knowing and conserving a variation of tree species in a forest is crucial to ensure a future potential of high levels of multiple ecosystem services (Gamfeldt et al. 2013).
(2003) explore natural and anthropogenic influences on the climate system, with an emphasis on the biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of historical land cover change. The biogeophysical effect of land cover change was first subjected to a detailed sensitivity analysis in the context of the UVic Earth System Climate Model. Results showed a global cooling in the range of –0.06 to –0.22 °C, though this effect was not found to be detectable in observed temperature trends. They then include the effects of natural forcings (volcanic aerosols, solar insolation variability and orbital changes) and other anthropogenic forcings (greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols). Transient model runs from the year 1700 to 2000 were presented for each forcing individually as well as for combinations of forcings.
Abstract Mangrove forests are very unique and highly productive ecosystems that line the coasts of subtropical and tropical coastlines around the world. It not only plays multiple ecological functions essential to its surrounding habitats, mangroves are also extremely important resource to human communities as well. Mangroves are survivor, growing where land and water meet and protect the environment by protecting coastal areas and communities from storm surges, waves and typhoons. Despite of the goods they do there are still some issues that threatened the existence of the mangrove ecosystem. Unfortunately, human activities are the main factor contributing to the destruction and degradation of mangrove forests.
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTUAL AND MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SOIL- WATER CONSERVATION IN AN EPHEMERAL STREAM INTRODUCTION Hydrological cycle touches every living organism’s in day today life but its survival to human exploitations have brought the cycle in endangered phenomena. The factors contribute in reduction of surface water availability, infiltration rates; Apart from this population growth, water marketing and agricultural growth also increased the water demand which in turn also increased the groundwater exploitation. Because of this, non-equilibrium of inflow and outflow components in water storage has brought water scarcity. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) is new approaches involves applying knowledge from various disciplines