In biological control, there are two different types of invasions. The first of these is the unintentional invasion of a plant or animal species into a new area. The second type of invasion is the subsequent, and intentional, invasion of natural invasion introduced for the purpose of refining the negative effects of some previously invasive species that have become a threat to other species or to some characteristic of the invaded ecosystem. This article presents a theory of interactions, based on both union structures in a community and on population dynamics ,that brings together these two types of invasions and connects invasion biology and biological control. the connections between these two different types of invasion share a common population dynamic structure, and a common union structure.
In Ecology, biological invasions are composed of native, non-native, and invasive species. There are attributes that classify which organism belongs to which category. Native species are organisms that are locally from the territory and result from natural processes with no human inference. Non-native species (exotic species) are organisms that are from a remote ecosystem and have the ability to become either invasive or non-invasive. Invasive species are types of exotic organisms that cause environmental and economic harm to our human wellbeing.
The introduction of the invasive species will create a new demand in terms of food, shelter and reproduction. As a result, the entire ecosystem will be disoriented. Invasive Species in Region Africanized bees, brown tree snake and Zebra mussels are examples of popular invasive species (USDA). Endemic species
Invasive Species Invasive, alien species, those which colonise, expand and out compete native species (Smith & Smith, 2009), are a major threat to our habitats, terrestrial and aquatic species, and biodiversity. Agricultural and leisure industries are affected as well as conservation welfare and the continued wellbeing of man, flora and fauna. Whole ecosystems can be distorted and the economic cost of awareness, prevention and eradication systems is substantial. Most invasive species have been introduced by mandeliberately or otherwise. As an island, Ireland has been subjected to less invasive species than larger nearby land masses e.g.
“Over 200 fish species have been introduced to the United States following importation, many of which threaten ecosystems and infrastructure” (103). When exotic animals are introduced to habitats they did not evolve with, they are without many of the environmental stressors that are placed on native animals, such as predation. When that characteristic is coupled with the fact that some exotic animals may be larger and more aggressive than its ecological counterpart, it becomes easy to see how non-native species out-compete native
Severe and sometimes irreversible consequences often accompany the introduction of invasive species. Invasive species may directly compete with native species, contribute to biodiversity, increase predation on native species, and destroy natural habitat, often at an extreme cost to the economy (Morris and Whitfield 2009). In the Caribbean Sea, two species of lionfish, the red lionfish (Pterois volitans) and common lionfish (Pterois miles), have been introduced to the area, and their range is rapidly expanding (Schofield 2009). Lionfish are native to the Indo-Pacific region (Morris et al. 2009) and were likely introduced to the western Atlantic via the marine aquarium trade (Semmens et al.
Environmental impact assessment "Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the term applied to the systematic examination of the likely impacts of development proposals on the environment prior to the beginning of any activity". (http://www.ncte.ie/environ/eia.htm) Screeningis the process of ascertaining whether a development requires an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is determined by reference to mandatory and discretionary provisions as set out in the Planning and Development Acts (2000-2010) and the Planning and Development Regulations (2001-2011). The likelihood of significant environmental effects is the principal issue around which consideration of the requirement for an EIA is focused. These significant effects have the potential to occur due to nature of the proposed development, the scale, massing or magnitude of the proposed development and the intended location of the development in relation to particular environments sensitive to
This equates to a lack of predator recognition. Once predators are introduced, the native wildlife’s ability to escape is almost non-existent. With the increasing human settlements, non-native species such as feral livestock and domestic mammals were introduced. The introduced species exert a strong selection pressure compared to the native life on Galapagos leading to a serious decline and almost complete extinction of some endemic fauna (Hennessy and Mccleary 2011 & Kutschera and Kleinhans
As omnivores face high extinction rates, they may not have sufficient time to undergo speciation and form 2 different species before they go extinct. However, omnivores have not completely vanished due to high transition rates into omnivory. This would only occur when there is low availability of a preferred food source. For instance, an herbivore will only eat plants. Yet, when there are a low number of plants in the environment, herbivorous birds that can also take other food
Only after detecting an invasive alien species is it possible to intervene, and prevent, manage or stop the invasion. The control measures needed are based on the extent of the invasion, the species invading and in which environment it is invading. There is a large gap in knowledge and data regarding invasive reptiles (Moffitt et al. 2008), which threatens successful control and eradication (Hoskin 2011). Many of the eradication and control measures utilized in the past are either not shared (Howald et al.
In this instance, the term “take” encompasses any harm of an endangered species or its habitat (Laschever, 2012). This is directly applicable to the land included in the order. Donald’s industrial park would inevitably affect the environment of the endangered birds. Even though EPA decisions are binding, they can be appealed.
Their is a growing and spreading problem in the world, and it is growing in our own backyard. Reports from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services show invasive species cost the United States more than $120 billion in damages every year and that number is on the rise. New invasive species are entering the United States each day and each has the potential to cause mass destruction to our ecosystem and economy if not taken care of. Some animals have already taken hold and are having disastrous effects.
Animals and plants become at risk for extinction, or endangerment, when environments and ecosystems are changed by human activities or other natural causes (Wright & Boorse, 2014). Regrettably, human activity is usually the source of environmental change and endangerment to a species through pollution, over-consumption, and in some regions of the world, over-population (Wright & Boorse, 2014). Also attributable to the destruction of a species, are the human activities that result in habitat loss and the introduction of an exotic species into foreign ecosystems (Wright & Boorse, 2014). Human activity is not solely to blame, as each species also has natural predators; however, habitat loss, relating to economic development, appears to be the