Madison sticks to Jeffersonian ideals when he opposed the International Improvement Bill of 1817, because the power to regulate commerce is not specifically given to the federal government in the Constitution. In the message he wrote to Congress, He illustrates that this authority belongs to the states, which is an act of strict interpretation of the constitution. It also indicated the problem of sovereignty between states and the federal government. In fact, this action directly opposed that of the previous president Thomas Jefferson in regards to the Embargo Acts. Jefferson uses loose interpretation to say that the federal government does have the power to regulate commerce, while Madison complies with his party's beliefs of strict constructionism.
The Constitution of the United States was written in 1787, but there was a grapple for its ratification that went on until about two decades after the ratification. Members of Congress believed that the first government of the United States or the Articles of Confederation, needed to be adjusted while others did not want anything to change. After the Revolutionary War, the people did not want a strong central government, because it reminded them too much of what they were trying to escape from. Under the Articles, each state had their own laws, and the need for a new Constitution was desired by many. The Constitution of 1787 created huge debates, arguments and splits in the nation that lasted for several year after its ratification between people who
Thomas Jefferson’s and Alexander Hamilton’s viewpoints during the 1790’s and the 1800’s were very different but sort of similar. Jefferson wanted the government to be run by the people of the U.S. while Hamilton wanted the wealthy class to run it, Jefferson wanted strong state government, Hamilton wanted strong federal government. But one thing that stood out to the people was Hamilton wanted a loose/lenient interpretation of the constitution as Jefferson wanted a strict one. During the 1700’s-1800’s, despite the fact Philadelphia was the nation’s temporary capital, U.S. Congress met difficulties and fears that tested the strength of the Constitution and the republic it built. The nation had a few domestic issues of finance, taxation, and slavery that separated the delegates into unpleasant political groups which caused international relations disagreements and second thoughts.
Clay, borrowing a line from Hamilton, argued the road was a national issue and cited the necessary and proper clause. Jackson argued that even if the Maysville Road was a national issue he would still have vetoed the bill because “the treasury was now exhausted and the road could not be built without an increase in the national debt” . In the views of Jackson, the national debt prevented true independence. His main goal was to reduce and repay the debt. As president he made
The process of ratifying the constitution created a basis for feverish debate amongst the founding fathers. The delegates differing ideologies and beliefs created one of the first political parties in the new nation—the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Due to this political factionalism the inclusion of the bill of rights were ultimately added to the constitution and thus ratified by the minimum required of votes—nine out of thirteen states—in 1788. To understand how the constitution became to be, one must grasp the ideals that the federalist and anti-federalist stood for, how key figures such as Patrick Henry and James Madison contributed to the constitution, and why their contributions were significant. To begin, the Federalists were those who favored the ratification of the
This quote by Ted Yoho asserts the importance of the United States Constitution in establishing our beliefs. Even though this document made a great impact on our nation at the time of its writing, the path to ratification was not straight forward. In the summer of 1787, debate was waged in the newspapers, articles, and state conventions regarding the division of power among groups. The Federalists favored a strong national government and therefore, supported the Constitution. The opponents, however, named themselves the Anti-Federalists, and they argued that the new plan handed too much power to the central government.
Both parties had America’s best interest at heart, however Hamilton and the Federalists’ ideas concerning the economy, interpretation of the Constitution, and the future of American society made them more fit for governing the United States. Hamilton’s understanding of a successful economy allowed him to make decisions that would benefit the country. As discussed in source one, Alexander Hamilton created a uniform currency and an economic plan that would assume state debts and make them federal debts. From there on, he created a national bank; in source three Hamilton states, “...[The Democratic Republicans] were determined to oppose the banking system, which would ruin the credit and honor of the Nation”, as he clearly has the nation’s best interest at heart. The Democratic Republican feared corruption, but they overlooked that their rights are protected in the Constitution and that their
Federalists, those who were in favor of a strong federal government, were in debates with Anti-Federalists, those who opposed the ideas of the Constitution. They believed the Constitution weakened the states too much, had no Bill of Rights, and thought the President could easily become a king. Delaware was the first state to ratify, with Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut quickly following. Massachusetts ratified, but still had a strong opposition, and only a major campaign by Constitution supporters won the ratification of the state. Maryland and South Carolina had ratified, which made 8 state ratification.
Shortly after Maryland, South Carolina and New Hampshire followed. New York and Virginia, two major states with a massive impact, were hesitant to ratify. These states were filled with Anti-Federalist, who feared strong central government, as well as the president becoming dictator or king. In order to persuade the Anti-Federalists, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay created the Federalists Papers. Then finally, enough states had ratified for the Constitution to go in effect, although Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island had not yet ratified.
Deficit Spending Norman Harris American Military University 29 January 2017 Deficit Spending Deficit spending is based off the Keynesian ideology of macroeconomics which, in part, believes the government can be used to stimulate the economy. Deficit spending occurs when a government spends more money than what it takes in over a fiscal period, creating or increasing a government debt balance. Government deficits gets it money through the sale of public securities; an example of public securities are government bonds (Roots, nd). Deficit spending is an intentionally calculated plan included in the yearly fiscal budget of the President and Congress to help stimulate the economy (Amadeo, 2016). The roles of deficit spending
The Bank of the United States was a necessity that our nation could not do without because it created a national currency, created new money through borrowing, and expanded the national economy. The bank would be the capstone of Alexander Hamilton 's financial plan. His plan was for the states debts and federal debts all be assumed by the federal government under the impression that it would bring the states closer to the national government. The willingness of the American people to repay their debts drew the attention of foreign investors. While the first part of Hamilton 's financial plan was successful, many people were still opposed to the idea.
Many of the state conventions ratified the Constitution, but called for amendments specifically protecting individual rights from abridgement by the federal government. The debate raged for months. By June of 1788, 9 states had ratified the Constitution, ensuring it would go into effect for those 9 states. However, key states including Virginia and New York had not ratified. James Madison, the principal author of the Constitution, knew that grave doubts would be cast on the Constitution if those states (the home states of several of its chief architects, including Madison himself) did not adopt it.
After the ratification of the Constitution, a new system of government was introduced, but America was facing major difficulties. The United States was in an enormous amount of debt from the Revolutionary War, and rising political parties were already developing tensions. Political leaders such as Alexander Hamilton and George Washington took measures to shape the orderly growth of the United States Government which followed. Hamilton’s financial plan and Washington’s precedent contributed to the institution of a strong national government that would shape the economic growth of the U.S. During the state of debt, Hamilton recognized America’s need for an effective financial system. He created a financial plan that would increase the nation’s
The articles of confederation was written right after the revolutionary war was fought, however, the AOC failed, so they had to start all over with a new document called the constitution. 9 out of 13 colonies needed to ratify the new constitution for it to take effect. When it came to organize the government after the AOC, the people were divided on how the government should handle the fears of social, political, and economic fears which motivated the 2 parties, federalist and antifederalist. The federalists supported the new constitution, while the anti federalists were opposed. The political motivation for the federalists to support the ratification was they believed that a stronger government was necessary as the AOC had failed previously