What are causes of health disparities? Causes of health disparities could be attributed to socioeconomic status and education. A link between those who live in poorer communities and poor health outcomes are often related. Members of these communities are exposed to many health problems causing them to have poor health. Members of these communities also lack education about overall health which could be a reason why health disparities are more prominent in these areas.
University of the people Discussion Forum unit 7 SOC 1502 - AY2018-T1 What factors do you think contribute to the disparities in health among ethnic, socioeconomic, and gender groups in your country? What diseases are the most stigmatized? Which are the least? Is this different in different cultures or social classes? It being a long-term challenge among certain groups due to the disparities in health care in the united states.
Characteristics of the PC relations The PC relations contain various characteristics: dependency, inequality, power, symbiotic relations, and reproduction. All these characteristics are intertwined with each other. I argue that the core function of these features, in the urban refugee setting, is to perpetuate the relationship and provide ongoing advantage for the providers and an ongoing disadvantage for the refugees. The following section examines the features of the PC relations and their implications on the provision of social services, including education. Dependency and exploitation Often the scarcity of social resources and access to social services induce clients to seek a patron.
Price discrimination is the seller practice of charging different consumers different prices for the exact same good or service when that exact same good or service costs the same to produce (Sexton, 2013). The practice of price discrimination exists when three conditions are met. Those three conditions are that there is market power, that the demand curves for the consumers are different, and that the consumer would have difficulty reselling the product or service for a profit. The example that I am most familiar with is price discrimination in healthcare. This is a very common practice and one of the many reasons that you don’t see charges posted for equipment, supplies, and services like you would in a non-healthcare environment.
This critique emphasises Foucault’s point in that, the ideas and ‘realities’ in biomedicine are, in fact, social constructions of ‘health’ in a particular manner within certain social, historical and cultural contexts (Walsh 2004). Hence, sociologists argue that the medicalisation of diseases is a social process. It is important to consider social contexts outside the West, where biomedicine is less dominant and so, similar symptoms and signs of diseases may not necessarily hold the same usual meanings (Walsh 2004). History has shown that diseases and health issues can differ and change over time and between cultures. The examples of recent medicalised ‘diseases’ as well as demedicalied ‘diseases’ in Western culture, defies biomedicine as stable and based on biological realities (Walsh 2004).
Inequality of opportunity exists when laws, policies, or official actions deny specific groups of people certain social, political, or economic benefits that are available to other groups. On the other hand, inequality of outcome occurs when social and demographic forces cause one group of people to enjoy political, social and economic benefits more than the other groups. Another critical concept to Civil Rights is segregation. Segregation is the physical separation of two groups of people,
In defining social vulnerability, the terms are different than vulnerability being applied to built systems but instead refers to potential harm to people. This means certain types of people or groups of people, whose ability to manage and recover is lessor than other portions of the population. Core elements for assessing social vulnerability must first be divided into resources and characteristics influenced by socioeconomic status, environmental and types of infrastructure within the community. Using these categories social vulnerability can be linked to levels of risk and resiliency among populations. Furthermore, measures for social inadequacies are shaped by social status, ethnicity, and gender which happened to be the makeup of many of the communities effected by Hurricane Katrina.
These include inequality based on access to the available opportunities and inequality based on conditions accorded to different classes and positions within the society. Inequality on the basis of the existing opportunities in the society can be explained by the society’s existing unequal distribution of chances that can enable an individual to succeed in the society. Important measures that can illustrate a society’s inequality of opportunities include the ways different people within the society are treated by the criminal justice system, health status of different social classes in the society, and the level of education attained in different classes in the
Beteille (1983) made a useful distinction between two aspects of inequality – the relational and the distributional aspects. The sociologist is mostly concerned with the first kind, whereas the economist is with the second. In the first case, inequalities are seen as built into the social structure in the form of relations of superordination and subordination, i.e. the patterns of rights and obligations. The economist, on the other hand, sees inequality in the distribution of wealth or income, or, following Sen, in the distribution of certain ‘outcome indicator’ like health or educational status.
Poverty can also be defined into absolute or relative terms. The first concept has to be with the income necessary to meet basic needs, like food, clothing and shelter. On the other hand, the second concept takes into account the social and cultural aspect of someone’s life, defining poor as the failure to meet some pre-established standards of living in a certain societal context.
This implies that disparities in health continue to exist despite the efforts of the health care systems to provide patients similar access to care, which according to Woolf, and Braveman (2011), suggests that disparities originate outside the formal health care setting. The authors concluded that environmental and social variables especially income and education are often the underlying causes of illnesses and are key to understanding health
Differences in Health Disparity Research and Quality Initiatives Conventionally, quality improvement (QI) and research are identified as two distinct areas, without significant connections in the health care field. According to Mode and Peterson (2005) research and practice integration is a complex task since it often needs new conceptual frameworks, categories of relationships, and languages for patients, clinicians, researchers, funding agencies, and academic institutions. Therefore, health research and practice possess different ways of addressing issues; hence, exhibit different characteristics in handling disparities. Sickle cell pain management is one of the areas that reveal most of the key differences in health disparities research and quality initiatives, which emanate from their different focus and orientation. Despite the existing differences, merging study and quality improvement efforts can be source of advantage in addressing health disparity issues due to the informational role played by research, and the evidence approach of QI.
From the first glance, the rise of the federal minimum wage is beneficial to everyone. It will improve living standards and the country’s overall economy, create more job opportunities, and reduce the poverty rate. However, after analyzing some economic theories and reading presumption made by qualified economists the idea of increasing the federal minimum wage will not look as good as before. Oppositely to benefits the raise may adversely affect standard of living, cause layoffs and fewer hirings, or has negative effect on poverty rate. Both points of view show the significant impact that the raise of the federal minimum wage may cause and both of them are partly correct.
Occupational health disparities exit on many jobs. Health disparities may be defined as differences in disease incidence, mental illness, or morbidity and mortality that exist among specific populations (CDC, 2012). The classification of vulnerability is determined by age, race, income, employment, etc. Immigrants fits the definition of being vulnerable because they are a racial minority, temporary workers and has cultural and language barriers. Their economical and political resource may put them at a disadvantage.
There are a variety of cultural differences depicted throughout the world. Beliefs systems and social groups in our society today are based on a person’s background history, upbringing, and consciousness. One major aspect of a social group is the study of double consciousness or the internal conflict. The presence of two unconnected streams of consciousness in one individual or experienced by subordinated groups in an oppressive society in comparison to one’s own individuality or the quality that makes one person or thing different from all others. How a person feels about themselves and the intrapersonal relationship that occurs within the individual mind or self has a great impact on a person’s life.