Use the standard normal distribution table to find the value of Z that satisfies the following conditions: a.) the point z with 25% of the observations falling to the left of it, b>0 the point z with 40% of the observations falling to the right of it. Answer: a. the closest value is
Introduction Social inequality means the unequal distribution of income, unequal access to education, opportunity, wealth and power in a society. It goes hand in hand with the social stratification. It is feature is the exist the inequality of opportunities and rewards for different social statuses within a group or society. There are two points to measure social inequality is including the inequality of conditions and the opportunities for each people. Inequality of conditions means the unequal distribution of income such as job income, wealth, and resources, etc.
To convert the differences from the theoretical value, which is the approximated value of the golden ratio, one can take the theoretical value minus the experimental value and then divide that by the theoretical value. Using the number given, finally multiply by 100% to produce a percent. If the result is a negative for the percent, then the absolute value of the number has to be taken as shown below. PEPA= (1.61803 - (19,89 meters 12.28 meters)1.61803) x 100% = 0.0025% PAAE= (1.61803- (12.28 meters7.59 meters)1.61803) x 100% = 0.0068% These percentages indicate that the architects who had built the Parthenon had used the concept of the golden ratio is there structure. It also demonstrates that from the actual theoretical value of the golden ratio, there is only a slight difference between the theoretical and experimental value which was the reason for the very small percentage.
In this example, two dies are open to differ whereas the third die is not. For that reason, degree of freedom is equal to 2. For data with one category: Degree of freedom = number of observations -1 For data with more than one category represented in a table: Degrees of freedom = (number of rows in the table) – 1 X (number of columns in the table) -1 The chi-square test is used to determine whether two variables are independent or not. If two variables are dependent on each other, their values have a tendency to progress together, either in the opposite direction or in the same. Example Consider a data set of 100 individuals divided into categories of Male, Female and university admission (Yes/No).
The Poverty Gap Index Poverty gap index is moderately popular measure of poverty. It captures the mean aggregate income or consumption shortfall relative to the poverty line across the whole population. It is obtained by adding up all the shortfalls of the poor (assuming that the non-poor have a shortfall of zero) and dividing the total by the population. In other words, it estimates the total resources needed to bring all the poor to the level of the poverty line (divided by the number of individuals in the population) (Aline Coudouel, Jesko S. Hentschel, and Quentin T. Wodon Aklilu, B , 2007). Mathematically, the poverty gap index can be calculated as follows: P1 =∑_(i=1)^P▒〖(z-y〗 i )
Structural mobility has two possible outcomes, one is when an individual improves the indicators of Social Classes (wealth, education etc.) that enables them to move up the hierarchy. Second is when an individual fails to sustain or maintain their social class, their situation may worsen. As for Circulation Mobility, it depends on the fairness in the allocation of opportunities and other necessities given by the society (Bok, 1996). Rise in Social inequality have been proven by the wide salary gap between the rich and the poor.
To understand the causes of inequality one must first know what inequality is. Inequality is the extent to which income is distributed unevenly in a group of people. It is the disproportionate ownership of resources between different sections of the society. Inequality is typically thought of as differences between individuals within a population, normally a country, though it can also be considered for smaller or larger populations. Thus it is important to consider inequality between groups of people, including global inequality between countries, inequality between regions or communities within a country, and inequality between groups of individuals or households classified according to various criteria (for example gender, class).
Poverty is when you cannot afford to pay for the basic needs, or limited income, such as you earn less than $5 a day. The concentrated poverty is when more than 30% to 40% of people living in the area is extremely or highly –poverty (lecture – exam review). The difference between poverty in general and concentrated poverty is not large, as the concentrated poverty is only a region with the percentage of the poor population is greater than 30% based on the US census. Based on the definition of hyper-segregated mentioning in question 1, when a metropolitan area become a segregation city, it will lead that area too many social problems and especially the concentrated poverty. The reason for that is because segregation means that people with same
Over the past decade, poverty has been an issue that affects communities but, have we asked ourselves what poverty means? According to World Health Organization approximately 1.2 billion people in the world live in extreme poverty (less than one dollar per day). In fact, the poverty forms in many patterns or disappears behind lots causes; however, it is difficult to restrict the poverty in single definition especially when it associated with the health. On the other hand, poverty is influenced by financial, economic, political and social factors which contribute interchangeably to raise the poverty lines in some countries. Therefore, poverty causes ill-health because it forces some people to live in the worst environments and conditions and
Another reason why families are poor is because there is only one parent or guardian providing for that family. According to the PBS Documentary, almost half of the families with single mothers are living in poverty. This is the case with the Hegwood family. One parent working is simply not enough income to pay the bills while living comfortably. Another cause of poverty could be an unexpected event such as a natural disaster occuring.