There are also some symbols Anouilh puts into his Antigone one is Creon’s attack. While he is mad at her proud defiance of the law and him not being able to change her mind in anyway Creon grabs Antigone’s arm and does so really tightly in which Antigone feels nothing which then shows that Antigone has passed beyond the reach of the state power and the control of men. These two different examples can also be related to France at the time of Nazi occupation. The rivalry of Antigone and Ismene can be seen as the rivalry of the Allies and the Axis powers of world war two where Antigone in this case represents the Allies just as she represented the French resistance and Ismene would represent the Axis powers. This comparison is shown due to the differences in Ideals between the Allied and Axis powers as the differences between the two sisters.
In a lecture about ‘The Burkean Outlook’ at Yale, Dr. Ian Shapiro states that Edmund Burke was anti-enlightenment. This lecture was based on Burkes’s book called ‘The Reflections of the French Revolution’. This text provides a deep insight into the political philosophy Burke believed in and can help us to make analysis about Burke’s point character. This outlook, as the professor describes, is based on extreme distrust of not only science, but anybody who claims to have scientific knowledge. Edmund Burke was many things, but he was not Enlightened.
Nietzsche even pointed out that liberalism, like religion, can be used as a form of legitimation (Cristi, 2010). A modern liberal state is founded on “consent” of the people (ibid). The problem with this is that it cannot guarantee the compliance of every individual (i.e. if they do not feel obligated to obey the laws) and this would eventually lead the state to its downfall (ibid). Likewise, Weber argues that because of the democratic ideas brought in by the French Revolution, “people are reluctant to accept that anyone is entitled to rule except the people themselves” (Shaw, 2008).
Hobbes subsequently fled to Paris in fear of his safety where he began to write a trilogy called Elements of Philosophy concentrating on politics, natural sciences and psychology. Hobbes had a pessimistic view on society believing that individuals are selfish, and would do anything for personal gain. He feared the disarray that selfishness would create within mankind. This bias shows vastly through his work in Leviathan where he wrote that in order to have peace and security individuals must give up personal freedoms to a Sovereign Leader. An example of this being that, as part of a “social contract,” each individual relinquishes the right to take property from another.
Liberalism falls on the left, progressive side of the political spectrum, while conservatism and libertarianism lie on the right side. Most people, especially on the left think that conservatives are far-right, fascist, narrow-minded, bigoted, Nazis, who do not embrace change. However, this false notion, again, based on emotions, stems from an ignorance about conservatism, whether that be willful or unintentional. When defining conservativism, or any other political mindset, it is important to define the political spectrum. A common misconception is that the two extremes of the political spectrum are Communism (Left) and Fascism (Right).
As I have said, the Enlightenment influences art: artists begin to refuse the excesses of the Rococo style (that are draw near the lifestyle of absolute monarchies), in order to find harmony by following reason. The strong reactionary tendency was basically only a return to the rational and moralizing keynote of French art, a return to the classic epoch in the name of the “grand-father law”. Neo-classicism born with the need to purify the previous art, accused of superficiality, shaped by the absence of grand action, of strong composition, of impassioned expression, but above all by the lack of ethical content ( Friedlaender, 1980 p.6). There is the necessity to return to classicism, to adore and emulate the antique which becomes a moral affair. With the aim to express the ethical value, artist prefers to represent old scenes in the classical Roman and Greek background, which seen heroes at its centre.
The Link Between the Age of Reason and the French Revolution When the influence of the Enlightenment on the revolution, is put to question, a tendency to blame the philosophes for their indirect involvement in events that are ‘too flawed’ in the scheme of the French Revolution. The "Enlightenment' was not a single movement or school of thought, for these philosophies were often mutually contradictory or divergent. The Enlightenment was less a set of ideas than it was a set of values. At its core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals, and a strong belief in rationality and science. While assessing the influence that the Enlightenment had on the revolution,
I. Sorel 's Radical Project Sorel was one of the most prominent figures of the French early 20th century Marxism, but he was radically opposed to the tradition of parliamentary socialism. Indeed, this disdain for parliamentarism is what he and Benjamin definitely share. In his most remarkable work, Reflections on Violence, Sorel fiercely attacks such figures as Jean Jaurès and other members of the French parliament. He views parliamentary socialism as a clear betrayal of the genuine Marxist principles, that is, of the commitment to the task of overthrowing capitalist state and economical system, instead of reforming it. Sorel 's Reflections on Violence is not a mere intellectual endeavor; rather, it is a revolutionary guideline.
Burke’s Criticisms of Hobbes’ Social Contract Edmund Burke, after a visit to France in 1773, wrote a pamphlet titled Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) to express his disdain for the events and methods of the French Revolution. Where other political writers of the Enlightenment and Anti-Enlightenment Eras propose theories of politics and government, Burke does not promote a theory, a set of premises, a call to action, or even a succinct conclusion. He rather details his disposition of contractual government and politic science. He believes that the human condition, the traditions, experiences, and knowledge acquired by humans, is far to complex to be described by science and therefore avoids he commonly held views of political science from the Enlightenment Era. However, Thomas Hobbes, as he writes in Leviathan (1651) believed that all political phenomenons could be reported systematically as he equated all humans to machines, predictable by consistently acting in their self interest.
On the other hand, the anti-federalists stood for the status quo, but were at a disadvantage due to lack of information about the documents of the Constitution. They believed that the Constitution would result in an aristocratic tyranny and demanded for the inclusion of a Bill of