This essay will evaluate if Gettier truly did “single-handedly change the course of epistemology”. It will do so by acknowledging some criticisms towards Gettier. Consequently, this essay will assert that several decades later the Gettier cases are still successful in questioning JTB and thus the philosophical analysis of knowledge has yet to be resolved. What is the analysis of knowledge?
Heidegger argues that the true nature of “being-in-the-world” is inseparable from Dasein; therefore, to have a world that can be separated from Dasein is an incorrect notion of “world.” An alternative interpretation of “world” is necessary. Unique to Dasein, Heidegger argues that the world is that in which “Dasein finds ‘itself’ proximally in what it does, uses, expects, avoids…” (155). Therefore, just as with the notion of “being-in,” the “world” is constitutive of our being in an active and practical sense. The world is a ‘place’ not just in the physical space that surrounds us but the space from which we act, access possibilities, and embody social roles, statuses, and
More specifically, some authors see the theory of structuration, complexity theory and habitus as theories that seek to explain the process of social change. In the meantime, other scholars find similarities in structuration theory and Luhmann’s self-organization theory, given that both of them share an emphasis on the meaning of communication and actions. Academic literature shows that structuration theory and Bourdieu’s theory of habitus are closely intertwined. More specifically, Morrison (2013) claims that ‘Giddens’ ‘duality of structure’ rehearses Bourdieu’s conception of structured structures and structuring structures’ (p. 313). However, Giddens and Bourdieu only explained a circular system of ‘agent-system’ interaction, but did not give an explanation about how this cycle breaks, and thus, a social change or dysfunction occurs.
The singular use refers to the theoretical approach used for research while the plural use refers to the object of study. Culture is used in contrast to other academic disciplines or analytical tools (e.g. politics, economics) whereas cultures is used when examining different forms of culture and is therefore more concrete (e.g. regional culture, hipster culture). Another distinction which has had a strong impact on the study of culture is the understanding of culture as practice or culture as a system of symbols and meanings.
Various moments in time have triggered an act of urgency and produced endless questions that center around the complexity of how the world is structured and its impact on the present and past society. These questions then become a vital part of the creation of social theory. Through the different lenses of the countless theorist, the binary questions that are made to deconstruct the theoretical perspective that the anti-intellectuals present to the public, create a different framework for how the people define structure and "play". Through the viewpoints of W.E.B Dubois and Elie Pariser, the discussion of the social imagination and intellect are revealed. By integrating concepts from Dubois and Pariser, we can further analyze the structure of society and how the relationship with the past supplied the foundation for the perspectives of the classic theorist.
The concepts, oppositions, and hierarchies are constructed by power or social forces and, in turn, construct power. Discourses, serving specific interests, are conceived of ways of classifying and ordering by Foucault. Thus, it is the concepts, oppositions, and hierarchies which determine what is considered knowledge and truth or what is regarded normal and abnormal in a particular period. New Historicism employs Foucault’s technique of understanding a particular time’s episteme, i.e. the conventional mode of gaining and organizing knowledge which unites the diverse discourses and warrants their coherence within an underlying structure of implicit assumptions about the status of knowledge, to approach a literary text as a representation of or reaction to the power-structures in a given society.
Researcher position: Epistemology: Constructivist epistemology will underpin this study, Crotty (1998) states that meaning is constructed out of various phenomena resulting from interaction with life experiences. Since meaning has to be constructed, the proposed study will be premised on an interpretivist approach grounded by the symbolic interactionism perspective. Symbolic interactionism gives emphasis to the social interaction process as a means by which meaning and interpretation is made, For us to understand the behavior of people, symbolic interactionism becomes vital especially that it lays emphasis on the people interpret word and give meaning to symbols ( Denzin,1998;Patton,2002).Since human beings react towards things based on the
The theoretical framework guiding the research study is Olson’s (1965) theory of collective action. The theory’s origin can be traced back to rational choice theory and early group theories. It combines ideas from economics, politics, and social sciences in an attempt to explain individual behavior and group action. Especially, the theory’s application to diverse fields of study and its continued relevance in explaining individual behavior make it suitable for the exploration of the relationship between ICT use and citizenship norms. With regard to the proposed study, the argument can be made that Olson’s (1965) theory is relevant and appropriate as society and government are inherently efforts of collective action.
Different epistemologies offer different views of researchers’ relationships with their object of inquiry. When it comes to ontology, it is the theory of reality or existence (Crotty, 1998). For example, researcher’s ontological beliefs determine not only how they think about reality, but what exists for real
It is the assumptions the researcher makes in his mind about the way in which the world works. ’The first aspect of ontology is objectivism. This portrays the position that social entities exist in reality external to social actors concerned with their existence. The second aspect, subjectivism, holds that social phenomena are created from the perceptions and consequent actions of