(Fagan, 1995). Adorno as a result became one of the most important continental philosophers of the 20th century. He observed that people must conform to an outside world of which they have no control over. Overall it is clear that Adorno has a lot to say about the social world
Thomas Hobbes – Regarding the State and Law Firstly I would like to begin my discussion with Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes was an English philosopher, known through out the world as the author of “Leviathan” which is regarded as one of the earliest examples of the social contract theory. His writings were greatly influenced by the
Introduction to the topic Martin Heidegger (1889- 1976), an important 20th Century German philosopher is considered one of the most influential theorists. Heidegger’s work has extensive contribution in the fields of philosophy, theology and humanities which were important in the development of Phenomenology, Post Modernism and other related fields of knowledge. Many scholars reveal that Heidegger’s theories are difficult to interpret and understand. He is known to use difficult vocabulary, syntax, coin new words to explain complex concepts. Expounder is an individual who elucidates a concept, theory in detail.
Leo Strauss defined Political Philosophy in his journal, What is Political Philosophy? The problems of Political Philosophy as the attempt to know genuine knowledge of the standards which apply in political things and in political order (1969). The aforementioned discipline can be traced back to Athens, to the time of Socrates which can be seen in Plato’s work, The Republic, where he discussed in the form of discourse between Socrates, Cephalus, Thrasymachus and Polemarchus the meaning of justice which later then expanded to kinds of unjust society. Socrates was considered the founder of the political philosophy because of his questions of “What is…” that concerned human beings, how they live and things that involve their living such as the polis. (Strauss & Cropsey, History of Political Philosophy, 1987).
Within these Lectures, he introduces the term of ‘biopolitics’ within his philosophical vocabulary ‘Birth of Biopolitics’ is, in fact, the title of the Lecture (Foucault 2008). This notion is strictly bound to another important element we find in Foucault’s toolbox from the second half of the Seventies, namely with the notion of ‘governmentality’. Asking rhetorically to his audience why an analysis of some scholars of the Twentieth century belonging to the discipline of economics should provide an explanation of what biopolitics and governmentality are, Foucault answers that methodological reasons led him to take that step. These reasons are strictly related to the question of how power structure arise and propagate within society. In order to better understand that point, it is mandatory to step back to the former year Lectures .
Francis Marie Arouet better known by his pen name Voltaire was a French philosopher and writer of the age of Enlightenment. The age of Enlightenment marks that time in Europe dominated by the explosion of scientific and philosophical activity challenging traditional convictions and teachings. He played an enormous influence on the development of historiography through his demonstration of fresh new ways to look at the past. He was the first scholar to make a serious attempt to write the history of the world discarding theological frameworks and emphasizing culture and theological frameworks. Thus he is considered as one of the most brilliant literary geniuses of his time.
Distributive justice is a recently used theory used by the political and ethical decision maker’s philosophers. According to the Samuel Fleischacker 's on his book “A Short History of Distributive Justice” he have mention that distributive justices is a product of 18th-century Enlightenment thought, and particularly of the claims of the radical French revolutionary. This idea was originated from the great Greek Philosopher Aristotle. However in this led the 20th century philosopher like Rawl 's, Nozick and others a foundation for debate on this issue. 1.1 Justices Justices is the quality of social institution.
Critically examine the philosophical ideas that are expressed in Sartre’s novel Nausea Jean-Paul Sartre was a French Philosopher, novelist and literary critic. He was born on the 21st of June, 1905. During his life, he was one of the important figures in the philosophy of existentialism and also one of the prominent individuals in the 20th century French philosophy and Marxism. Existentialism is a 20th century philosophy which is basically centred on the analysis of existence, freedom and choice. It is the understanding that humans define their purpose in life and try to make coherent decisions although they exist in an irrational universe (Mastin, 2008).
Let’s see why. 1. The Study of Socio-Cultural Systems as a Whole 1.1 According to Structural-Functionalism Structural-Functionalism was developed in the early twentieth century and Radcliffe-Brown is considered its founding father. He sought to develop a theory distant from the diachronic description typical of evolutionism, understood as an account of changes in societies in the course of history. In order to do so he promoted a synchronic description “in which the
The two prominent names: Weber and Durkheim; considered the “founding fathers of Sociology”. Their writing in the late 18th century considered to be revolution and brought profound changes in the modern life. Although, both of these men studied the society, its structure and trends, but their methodology and theoretical approach were different. In the early years of his life, Durkheim was influenced and impressed by the evolutionary perspective of Herbert Spencer and later, with the works of August Comte. Whereas, Weber owed his approach much to the Neo-Kantian Philosophy.