Education was not important in its own right, its value lay in the preparation it offered children for their lives as adults. Bobbitt along with other early-twentieth-century efficiency-oriented school reformers made the case that the curriculum ought to be differentiated into numerous programs, some academic and preparatory that is necessary for all learner to live a better social life in the society and others vocational and terminal, and schools should assign children to these specialized curricular tracks, on the basis of assessments of their intellectual abilities, which fore-told their ultimate destinies in life. Social Efficiency educators use two types of panning while making curricula: (1) they must predetermine the relation between cause and effect, action and reaction or stimulus and response, and (2) they must plan causes, actions, or stimuli that in a direct and predictable manner will lead to the desirable effect, reaction, or response. As a result, the changes that are planned during curriculum creation are only those which fit into a stimulus-response pattern and which can be observed to be directly behaviourally
According to Dewey, the ability of an immature creature to adapt for growth constitutes its plasticity. Noddings believes that for Dewey, “immaturity is to be valued for its potential”. Growth, another one of Dewey’s concepts is central to his view of immaturity and indeed childhood itself. He wrote in his book Democracy and Education, that growing cannot be completed in odd moments; it is continuous, it leads to the future. As Noddings wrote, Dewey wanted students to learn in such a way that would make them eager to further their education.
1.0 VIVEKANANDA PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATION Knowledge is actually inherited within a person and not from external sources; it is already embedded in the human’s mind. The stimulus from education is the causes that multiply and widen the knowledge. That is why Vivekananda stated that education is actually the manifestation of the perfection already in man (1993: p.55). Manifestation actually means that something already exists and just waiting to be expressed. In other words, it is the order of making inner or hidden ability to be manifested to the best quality.
He argues the importance of education in teaching children to value achieved status, rather than ascribed status by the family. Education not only teaches about achieved status, but about competition, equality and individualism, which are crucial to the functioning of capitalism, therefor schools teach that capitalism is the norm, going hand in hand with meritocracy, where merit is gained through effort and attainment. Furthermore Parsons argues that school rules familiarise children to universalistic standards rather than the particularistic standards of the family. Education provides a society in miniature, where children can learn to become citizens, through acquiring behaviours and characteristics expected of them outside the family. Leaning all these essential norms and values is critical to move on from education into a working job.
Rewarding students for good grades will decrease student’s self-motivation. Paying students for good grades will realize an actual decrease in academic performance. These distinct disadvantages highlight why schools should not pay students for good grades. First, paying students for good grades causes practical problems in the classroom. According to the National Education Association (NEA), “Many teachers also say paying students for grades leads to practical problems in their classrooms, including pressure to inflate grades and conflict with students and parents.” These pressures and conflicts can lead to larger problems outside of school.
An Essay on Purpose of Education What is the purpose of education? We seldom think of this. Briefly, the purpose of education is to bring about physical, mental and social development of an individual. Education, if simply stated, means the process of gaining knowledge, inculcating forms of proper conduct and acquiring technical competency. It involves the cultivation of an innocent mind, the instilling of values and principles in the minds of children.
For example, children who are more able could effectively scaffold for the children who are less able when working together in a group. Dewey John Dewey also argued strongly for the application of child-centred learning. Similar to Vygotsky, he believed that the acquisition of knowledge and education was highly linked with social development, and that children should be able to access education as a social environment, to discover themselves and their own strengths and interests. He believed that ‘to prepare the child for the future life means to give him command of himself; it means so to train him that he will have the full and ready use of all his capacities’. Source: My Pegagogic Creed, John Dewey, 1897.
To do so, dialogue and critical consciousness, the development of awareness to overcome domination and oppression are required. Rather than "teaching as banking," in which the educator deposits information into students' heads, Freire advocates that teaching and learning is a process of inquiry in which the child must invent and reinvent the world. For social constructivists
“The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) are a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. The Organizations main objective is to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms.” (1) UNESCO highly promote the practice of philosophy, the utilization of critical thinking and liberty of expression in which it state that philosophy has a great value in the development of the human being thought for every culture and each individual. The institution believes that by practicing philosophy, it
Pulamte (2009) in his paper entitled ‘Tribal Education in Manipur: Problems and Options’ discuss the ails of Government schools in Hill areas of Manipur. The study was mainly based on observation through field visit, experiences as student’s activist. The paper stated that ‘everyone, right from the administrators to the common man thinks that teaching profession is just another job on the market that are meaningful for earning monthly salaries, it adversely affects the students. Many government teachers got respect, not because of the services rendered towards education, but because they are better off. Political interference in day-to-day activities of government schools is hampering the smooth and successful functioning of schools in hill districts of Manipur.