1.3 Turn of the century
By the turn of the century Black intellectuals and Northerners realized that the only way to escape from their situation laid in proper education. Churches and Charity organizations set up schools in order to support the education of blacks. The Freedmen’s Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church for example, founded a medical school for blacks (Franklin 240). In 1900, more than 1.5 million black children attended to schools, which is a significant boom compared to the preceding years. The assumptions were right: the inclusion of blacks into the education system led to a great educational awakening of blacks and so to a bigger number of trained workers and intellectuals who could be useful members of society.
It…show more content… Riots and lynching were organized all over the United States. Many blacks died but the attacks remained unpunished. Young radical black intellectuals under the leadership of W.E.B. DuBois realized that they had to take aggressive actions to solve this problem. They gathered in 1905 at the Niagara fall to exchange ideas and to find a solution. From this conference the radical Niagara Movement started, demanding full citizenship and freedom of speech. The meetings were organized every year. Two years later the conference decided about the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Their goal was the abolition of segregation enfranchisement and the enforcement of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments (Franklin 288). “In the first year of its existence the NAACP launched a program to widen the industrial opportunities for Negroes, to seek greater police protection for the in the South, and to carry on a crusade against lynching and lawlessness” (Franklin 288). Within a couple of years NAACP began spreading and had branches in every big city in the United States. The organization helped to provide economic opportunities for blacks by setting up organizations and training