History Of Structuralist Psychology

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Structuralism: Founded by Wilhelm Wundt in germany and mainly identified with Edward B. Titchener. Structuralism was made to analyze the adult mind from birth to death. It was made to study human behavior and culture.
The main tool of structuralist psychology was introspection. The thought process was made an occurrence of sensations of the current experience and feelings representing a prior experience.
Founded: 1879
Mary Whiton Calkins: Mary Calkins was born March 30, 1863 in Hartford, CT. She was a philosopher, psychologist, and educator. Mary attended Smith College and graduated in 1885. She also attended the University of Leipzig while in Europe with her family in 1887. She then joined the faculty at Wellesley College in 1887. In 1890,
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In 1905, Dr. Calkins was elected to be the first female president of the American Psychological Association. Along with the honor of being president, she was also offered a Doctor of Letters from the University of Columbia (1909) and a Doctor of Laws from Smith College (1910).
B. F. Skinner: An American psychologist, author, behaviorist, social philosopher, and inventor. B. F. Skinner got interested into psychology because of another psychologist, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.
He became a professor at Indiana University in 1945. He conducted experiments and got animals to do complex actions. He made the Skinner Box that is used to observe how animals react to drugs.
Born: March 20, 1904 Died: August 18, 1990
Charles Darwin: He was an English naturalist, biologist, and geologist. His scientific theory of evolution by natural selection became the foundation of modern evolutionary studies. He suggested that animals and humans shared the same
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Watson (Behaviorism): John was born on January 9, 1878. He received a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Chicago in 1903, and taught there later. In 1908 he became professor of psychology at Johns Hopkins University and started research in psychology.
In Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, (published in 1914) In it he argued for the use of animal subjects in psychological study and described instinct as a series of reflexes activated by heredity. The early formulations of behaviourism were a reaction John B. Watson against the introspective psychologies. In Behaviorism, Watson wrote that “Behaviorism claims that ‘consciousness’ isn’t definable or a usable concept. John later died on September 25, 1958.
Gestalt therapy: A humanistic method of psychotherapy that takes a holistic approach to human experience. This method stresses individual responsibility and awareness of present psychological and physical needs. Frederick Perls founded Gestalt therapy in the 1940s with his wife where he developed his own system of psychotherapy. In this theory, Perls believed in the idea of freedom and responsibility, immediacy of experience, and the individual 's’ role in creating meaning to life. Gestalt therapy seeks to resolve the conflicts that result from the failure to integrate features of the
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